|Arctic Russia. Newsflash: Non-modernized nomads do NOT seek to sleep on permafrost. |
Person 1: There was one anthrax outbreak in Russia. It occurred in 2016, in the northernmost part of central Russia, in an area known for its lucrative oil production. One outbreak only. One person died ... in all of Russia. Approximately one hundred got infected.
Person 2: Well, okay. Conceded. But, the bubonic plague and other microbiological disasters will strike Siberia, through the melting permafrost.
Person 1: The Bubonic Plague did strike Madagascar recently. But, that's in Africa ... not in Siberia. The Bubonic Plage also struck India, in 2014, killing 56. India is nowhere near the Russian permafrost, frozen or unfrozen. In order to emerge from melted permafrost, you have to be an endospore. The Bubonic Plague bacteria (Yersinia Pestis) is not an endospore.
Siberian Architecture is the issue
Microbiology isn't the issue of most concern, in the areas of receding permafrost. Architecture is. This is how you separate a Climate Change Fraudster from an honest person. If a person presents him or herself as a climate expert on permafrost, and doesn't mention "stilts," "thermopile," and/or "thermosyphon," the person is a fraud who is pretending to be an expert.
The first reality is that melted permafrost freezes-up real fast come Autumn in the Northernmost regions of Russia. Melted permafrost is frozen throughout most of the year. And, it only take two contiguous years for a frozen substance to be classified as permafrost; not 2,000.
Quick Tips, for detecting sleight of hand deceptions
Firstly, if you are looking at a photo with any kind of grass in it, you are NOT looking at a permafrost landscape. Secondly, if you are looking at Russian architecture over true permafrost (frozen or melted), you will see a concrete lot around the building, and stilts attached to the house, going into the ground. Thirdly, if you are being shown a photo of Arctic nomads, know this: They don't want to sleep on ice. Do you?
Then comes the thermopile (providing a shadowing effect on the ground below, to keep things cold) or thermosyphon (to extract heat from the ground below the structure.) This is in addition to house stilts.
Now, if there truly is a melting permafrost involved, as opposed to other varieties of snow & ice, it does NOT automatically mean that co2 or the minute level of any other minor greenhouse gas is doing the melting. Water vapor is the master greenhouse gas.
Concerning CO2, it's super easy to illustrate that it hasn't been causing a melting in the Arctic Circle, even though there has been melting there. Observe:
Firstly, atmospheric co2 is mostly uniform (mostly the same) with little variation throughout the Earth's Tropospheric altitudes. Even though some regions of the Earth emit much more industrial co2 than other regions, co2 generally evens itself out throughout the entire atmosphere, per altitude layer.
Thus, that which is occurring in the Arctic would be occurring in Antarctica, if co2 were a driver of climate & air temperatures. After all, Global Warming deals with the Globe ... not merely the Arctic Circle. So, the South Pole should have its melting, too. And Antarctica is the same size as the Arctic Ocean; 5.5 million square miles.
Newsflash: The Year 2021 was the year of Antarctica's coldest known winter on record.
Double Newsflash: The gigantic Ross Ice Shelf in Western Antarctica was found to be crystalizing at its bottom, and not smoothing-out. Smoothing-out denotes melting. Thus, the Ross Ice Shelf was doing the opposite of melting.
Directly below is a National Geographic video on the Ross Ice Shelf crystalizing at its bottom, after a super deep hole was cut into it, by New Zealand scientists in 2015. The name, National Geographic, makes it a prestigious video.
Oh, by the way, concerning the report that Antarctica had a recent record high of 64.9F, that place was 1,840 miles away from the South Pole, and 206 miles outside of the Antarctic Circle. It was 700 miles away from the southern tip of South America, where Chile and Argentina have borderlines.
In review, the official definition of permafrost is anything frozen for two consecutive years, including rocks and boulders. You do not need co2 to effect the melting of (or the sublimation) of permafrost.
CO2 is only 0.042% of the Troposphere, with the radiative forcing of a nightlight. Water vapor is the dominant greenhouse, comprising 90% of the Earth's greenhouse gases ... by volume, of course. So, you need to widen your panorama and quit being tunnel-visioned by an Al Gore who claimed that the center of the Earth is millions of degrees. The center is 9,800F to 10,800F. Gore is a fraud.
One more thing: It's very much possible for ice to turn directly into vapor, thereby bypassing the melting and liquefying phase. It's called sublimation. A prime example of this sublimation is on Himalayan mountain tops. Strong winds are required. So, if you see missing ice, it doesn't automatically mean "melting." And if you have melting ice, it doesn't automatically mean co2, when the co2 level is merely 21/50,000th of the atmosphere; that's "twenty-one, fifty thousandth" of the Troposphere.
Concerning the building of any structure on permafrost, that's a conversation for another article or discourse or video. So, an article written by a member of an Alaska firm (on the permafrost topic) was posted directly below, should you be curious.
|If there is vegetative life present, you are not on permafrost|
Permafrost has melted previously and the world did not come to an end. Evidence as to the absence of Northern Permafrost in ages past is artifacts found under present Permafrost ... or under recently melted permafrost. This includes human-made skis and a few mummies designed to be preserved for a really long time. Other evidence includes rooted tree stumps positioned closer to the Arctic Ocean than is today's more remote tree line. Therefore, the Zombie Apocalypse is on hold.
In fact, there's an irony with Arctic coastline permafrost. Firstly, it comprises 30% of all coastlines on Earth. Secondly, Arctic Ocean water has repeatedly been found to be super cooled, meaning that it is still liquid even though it's temperature is below 32F ... or 0C. This presents a question: Does permafrost ever become super cooled, turning into liquid without a temperature?
The variables in this equation would be ~frazil ice, ~anchor ice, ~turbulence, as in kicking-up eddys (those gyres ... slow-motion spinning tops). Well, this subject is for a series of articles. It's beyond the scope of this discourse.
All in all, Arctic Ice starting slowly going downward in 1968 or so. Then, after 1979, when there was the highest accumulation of Arctic sea ice, it diminished more efficiently. It stared its return in 2017. None the less, all of the Arctic Ocean is on salt water. The Antarctic is desert land, and the ice accumulation on that land is equal to the ice accumulation during the latest maximum glaciation (aka Ice Age) of North America.
Moreover, the massive ice shelves of Antarctica are mostly submerged in saltwater ... and are not floating on top of it. None the less, the Antarctic Ice has been found increasing within the past 10 years, especially in 2015. Meanwhile, Arctic Ice has not been doing so ... except for this year, in 2022, and 2017, as well as 2018. A return of ice started in 2017.
In as much, being that the Poles are under the same atmosphere, and yet are behaving differently from each other, the atmospheric co2 level is NOT an answer to this question, in any capacity. Having obsessive recourse to co2 levels as the answer to every atmospheric question is pathetic. CO2 is the key to photosynthesis. It's an answer to agricultural questions; not to atmospheric ones.
which might be an answer is found somewhere in the observation that sea
ice isn't forming above Northern Scandivania or west of Russia's Arctic
seaports. After all, you can draw a line from the Gulf of Mexico to
Western Russia's Arctic seaports. That might mean something useful.
None the less, that topic is beyond the scope of this article.
Yet, concerning 2022, the year of France's heat wave, there has been a generous allotment of ice in the Arctic. Yet, Scandinavian and Arctic Russian aren't getting the ice. None the less, there is more ice now than in the past couple decades. And and and, ships still get caught in Arctic Ice.
Greenland is what is exaggerated by the Climate Doomsayers. After all, if all the Arctic Ocean completely melted, it would have the same general effect as your iced tea ice cubes melting away. The water level would not increase.
Actually, when snow melts, the water level decreases. Anyone who worked outdoors for years, knows this via experience. So, the climate doomsayers must attract the public's mind to Greenland and then create a horror story via false light, sleight of hand misrepresentation.
None the less, the aforementioned question still isn't answered. For now, it would suffice to state that climate hysteria has gone overboard, because the Biden people are using it for inspiring high amounts of Congressional funding. The Congress is the keeper of the purse. So, the executive branch in DC has to inspire Congress to spend.
Endospores is the other issue
When it comes to the claim that pandemics will bloom from the melted permafrost areas, it's a matter of "endospores" which can sit crystalized and dormant for a few consecutive centuries, but NOT for thousands of years.
Now, there are aerobic endospores and anaerobic ones. Aerobic endospores activate in oxygen "mediums" and anaerobic ones activate as soon as they're in an environment free of oxygen.
An example of an anaerobic endospore is Tetanus. When it gets into a cut, into an oxygen-free zone of the human body, it's activated. If left untreated, tetanus mostly turns into "lock-jaw" which happens to be fatal.
An example of an aerobic endospore ` (in part only) is Anthrax which happens to be in the bacillus family. A bacillus is a rod. Anthracis refers to coal, as in the mark on the skin caused by anthrax. It looks like a lump of coal, one-dimensionally speaking. None the less, there are two types of anthrax. One is vegetative.
Bubonic Plague doesn't operate that way
That which proves asinine the assertion that "bubonic plague will come out of melted
permafrost" is the fact that bubonic plague bacteria (yersinia pestis) is
"non-spore-forming coccobacillus." It is NOT an endospore.
However, it is a "facultative anaerobic" bacterium, meaning that it can survive in oxygenated and oxygen-free mediums. Thus, it even feels at home in untreated cuts. BTW, coccus means sphere, and bacillus means rod. Coccobacillus means short and oval in shape.
needs a non-oxygen environment to enable itself to sit crystallized for
a few centuries. Snow is NOT oxygen-free. Ice is NOT oxygen-free.
Anthrax has to get kicked-up out of the Earth, though only at
near-surface depth. Wind or heavy precipitation or a military invasion
kicks it up the earth ... not melting. Melting doesn't kick up anything. After
the melting, something else must do the kicking-up.
Now, anthrax is NOT spread from human to human. It is NOT a contagion, unless there is cut-skin to cut-skin contact (subcutaneous contact). Anthrax mostly infects living beings by "aerosol dissemination;" breathing it in while it floats through the air.
One can also contract anthrax via eating something infected with anthrax.
Permafrost still frosts-up in the Wintertime. So, why does it seem that anthrax only hovers around the snowy cold places of the Earth? Well, it doesn't. Only the Climate Doomsayers make this appear to be so.
came out of Africa 3-6 thousand years ago. How did it get up to
Russia, in the first place? In order for anthrax to have landed on
Northern Russian ground, there had to have been a snowless time span in Russian, in
the first place. Thus, permafrost is not a hallowed relic.
Now, the Arctic Circle anthrax infection issue is yet another FALSE LIGHT MISREPRESENTATION. The media made it sound as if this type of thing was happening on a regular basis. The media made it sound like something that had now become common. In as much, answer this question:
Q: Except for Lake Nakuru Park In Kenya, when was the last time there was an anthrax outbreak?
ANS 1: July 2022 in Croatia. Dozens of cattle died. Six humans hospitalized. Croatia is far away from Russian permafrost.
2: June 2018, in France. Zero humans died. Cattle got infected.
Approximately 50 cattle died. France is far away from the Arctic Circle and
Russia in general.
3: 2009, in Scotland. Drug addicts contracted anthrax through needle
sharing. This definitely has nothing to do with melted or unmelted
permafrost anywhere on Earth. This was indoor anthrax. The drug
addicts were not shooting-up outdoors, in Northern Russia.
Climate Doom Propagandists have to insert lie after lie, in between pieces of actual historic fact. For example, the 2016 media reported that Russia's SOLE anthrax outbreak as the first one "since 1941."
There was no anthrax outbreak in 1941. That was during WWII, when Nazi Germany had invaded Russia. The outbreak was an Influenza Epidemic amongst the Nazi German troops. It was the 1918 Spanish Flue (Kansas Flu;) not anthrax and not the bubonic plague. So, do you once again see how the Climate Activists lie and lie and lie again, via sleight of hand, false light misrepresentation?
Concerning Climate Doomsayers stating that Russia would not only be infected with anthrax, but also by bubonic plague, etc rising out of the melted permafrost:
Well, between 2014 and 2017, there most certainly was an outbreak of the Bubonic Plague --- in Madagascar, Africa --- far far away from the Russian permafrost. In Madagascar, 2,348 people became infected, and 202 died. In Russia, none.
In 1994, there was a Bubonic Plague outbreak that killed 56 people --- in India, far away from Russian permafrost. Bubonic Plague, aka Yersinia Pestis, is NOT an endospore.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Q: Why does the Lake Nakuru anthrax outbreak not matter in this conversation?
It's because Lake Nakuru is in Kenya, and Kenya is at the Equator where
there is NO RUSSIAN PERMAFROST, melted or unmelted.
Q: So, when was the last time an anthrax outbreak resulted in at least one human death anywhere on Earth?
2016, in North-central Siberia. One 12 year old human unfortunately
died. One hundred other humans got infected. About 2,300 animals died,
mostly reindeer. That was six years ago. Nothing since then.
Q: Were there any other anthrax outbreaks in the 21st Century, other than the 2001 mail-delivery anthrax attacks?
ANS: Only one other ... in Jharkhand Inda, in 2014. Seven people died, and the anthrax was traced to one deceased cow. Some people made dinner from that infected cow.
is a warm weather region. It's coldest winter weather is usually in
the upper 40s Fahrenheit at night. Therefore, melted permafrost was NOT an issue
in this case, either. There was no permafrost there, in the first