And then there is the alternating of directional ocean flow between El Nino & La Nina. These are ocean oscillations, located at the Equator. This is when ocean water does NOT travel like a rotating gyroscope on the large scale, but rather, the current-flow travels west to east to eventually west again, is bordered by a string of smaller gyres, known as eddys. You will see eddy after eddy after eddy, connected like jewelry along one side of the ENSO ocean oscillation. ENSO stands for El Nino Southern Oscillation.
Now, the Equator is taught to be equated with the "Intertropical Convergence Zone," where you have little wind, a lot of low pressure, and a lot of rain. However, the ITCZ is not a straight line across Zero Degrees Latitude.
It shifts/bends significantly & seasonally in the Atlantic, Africa, and Asia, into India. For example, In January, it will cross through Brazil at 10 Degrees Latitude and then rise toward the northwest, into Liberia, Ivory Coast, & Ghana, and then make a diagonal descent though Zambia, Mozambique, and eventually to Northern Australia.
Then, in July, the Intertropical Convergence Zone travels through a line close to the 23.5 degree Tropic of Cancer, into Southern Saudi Arabia, through the Middle of India, and through Southern China (including Guangdong). However, in the Pacific, its wavy, but relatively straight in its pathway. And, it's taught to be a huge influence of American weather.
BTW, speaking of China, Beijing does have a Monsoon season.
The atmosphere is made of intricate gears that are repeatedly counter-intuitive. Writing everything off as a result of the atmospheric co2 level is frightening mindlessness.
The El Nino & La Nino equatorial currents travel between Longitudes 120E & 80W, and it has had a huge effect on American and Australian weather.
An El Nino event is one that starts during late December and endures for approximately four years (from 2 - 7 yrs, actually). It was named after the Christ Child, and it is associated with heat in the American Continent. La Nina is the eventual counteraction of those equatorial ocean currents, and it is associated with colder than usual temperatures on the American Continent. The Year 1998 was an El Nino Year. It was associated with a warm American Winter which frightened everyone who had no experience in atmospheric science. Yet, it was pleasurable. It was the Winter of little shivering.
The El Nino Southern Oscillation is abbreviated ENSO.
At this point, it is important to note that, throughout the rest of the Earth, the ocean surfaces are composed of massive GYRES which rotate like gigantic gyroscopes. This is why ocean waves crash into the shoreline at an angle, instead of doing so in a straight line. This angular wave motion is one of many proofs that the Earth is round, and it involves something known as the Coriolis Effect which you can look-up at your convenience.
The Coriolis Effect also involves something known as Eckman Transport which can refute one of Al Gore's paranoiac claims about climate doom in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. Gore and his team claimed that fresh-water ice from Greenland will progressively melt into the Atlantic, thereby lessening the ocean's salt content, and thereby causing the ocean to stop circulating and to cause an Ice Age in England. Well, if such a melting scenario were possible, it would only result in suppression of ocean down-welling and upwelling. In order to get the oceans to stop moving, you need to stop the rotation of the Earth and you need to stop the formation of wind.
if you want to identify a climate fraud, simply ask that person this:
"What is the definition of wind?" The fraud won't know the answer.
Wind is high pressure air traveling toward low pressure air ... denser
air making a route to empty itself into air with less compacted air
parcels. It's high pressure gravitating toward low pressure. You can
even effectively define wind as high pressure air chasing low pressure
air. The concept is understood as such.
Upwelling involves the providing of nutrients to sea life which abides in the Euphotic Zone. Concerning this, nature apparently has within it compensatory features throughout the Earth. Nature apparently has a Plan B, when upwelling is mitigated or halted. This is because a certain food source unexpectedly super-multipled as of recently, and such a thing will prevent any environmental oceanic crisis caused by the blocking of upwelling. It's called coccolithophore phytoplankton.
In fact, there is an area in the Gulf of Mexico which used to be called the Dead Zone, due to the negligent draining of residual industrial fertilizer there, via the Mississippi River. It's back to life now, and a major presence there is the coccolithophore phytoplankton.
Concerning the effort to understand ocean down-welling, it is needed to look-up Pycnocline.
This discourse also omits mention of Sublimation and Deposition. Sublimation is when ice turns into vapor without going through the melted liquid stage. Deposition is when vapor suddenly turns into ice.
Two points to make about sublimation, before we move on: A sign that sublimation has occurred is that the ice is jagged. When ice is partially jagged and only partially smoothed-out, that's the result of partial sublimation, needless to say.
greatest example of sublimation is at the top of the Himalaya
Mountains. The greatest example of partial sublimation is seen on the
walls of calving ice. Contrary to mainstream media's explanation
thereof, calving ice is NOT the result of melting ice. Melting ice
simply recedes. It does not perform a grand dive into the ocean.
Calving is the result of an increase of snow toward the center of a
landmass, pushing out the snow at the shorelines. Yes, calving is the
sign of increased snow, while calving ice walls are partially jagged and
Concerning the Thermohaline Circulation which is not to be confused with the Thermocline
An activist giving a speech might simultaneously show a world map projection marked with a colorful band/line traveling through the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. It looks like a ribbon. This can deceive the untrained public into assuming that the water motion symbolized by the ribbon is located at the surface of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Well, the previously mentioned gigantic OCEAN GYRES are what exist at the surface of the oceans. In fact, the massive gyre in the American side of the Atlantic ocean is called the Sargasso Sea. Al Gore is not a good teacher, in his withholding too many facts.
|From the United States National Ocean Service --- (the NOS)
Being that ocean gyres are important in understanding how much of a fraud the Al Gore people have been, one needs to understand the Coriolis Effect. This involves the rotation and tilt of the Earth (aka the Earth's "obliquity"). Firstly, the Earth presently tilts at 23.5 degree slant. Secondly, the Earth is revolving around the sun at 66,660 miles per hour. At the Equator it rotates around itself at 1,037 miles per hour. Moreover, the Earth's Rotation Speed at various latitudes go as follows, in miles per hour (mph) :::
10 degrees: 1021mph 20 deg: 975mph 30 deg: 898mph 40 deg: 795mph
50 degrees: 667mph 60 deg: 519mph 70 deg: 355mph 80 deg: 180mph
Now, keep in mind also that the warmest latitude on Earth is NOT always the Equator. The warmest latitude is the Summertime Tropic, at 23.5 degrees, if a Summertime is in progress, as opposed to an Autumn or Springtime.
Spring vs Autumn CO2 Levels
Speaking of Springtime, Al Gore stated in his first science fiction movie that, during Springtime, co2 is abundant, and during autumn's harvest season, co2 levels in the atmosphere are low. The truth is that the difference between the Springtime level of co2 and the Autumn level is no more than 2%. It's merely a 2% difference. Again, Gore was a terrible teacher.
Heat's Entrance & Exit Rates at the Earth's Various Latitudes
would also have helped for someone to have admitted that, 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week, the following occurs ===> From the 40th parallel
of both hemispheres to the poles of both hemispheres, more heat exits
Planet Earth's atmosphere into outer space than enters Earth's
atmosphere from outer space. The Earth's only viable source of heat is
the Sun, and the Earth's storehouse of heat mostly exists from Latitude
40 degrees N to Latitude 40 degrees S ... or visa-versa.
more things, regarding this ::: 1} The Earth is FARTHEST from the Sun
during the Northern Hemisphere's Summer and the Southern Hemisphere's
Winter. 2} The Earth spins from West to East.
Their Failed Doomsday Predictions & Hypocrisy
The Global Warmists failed in ALL of their doomsday predictions, mostly made circa 1988. All of the predicted climate doom was supposed to have been complete by 2018-2020. In fact, during this present time span, when the media obsessively barks out "Climate Change," Antarctica recently had it coldest day in recorded history, so recorded by satellite technology ::: a MINUS 135.7.
Furthermore, in 2021, the same Antarctica had its coldest six-month period on record. Even the prejudiced & slanted CNN reported that fact. BTW, this Antarctic six month period is more commonly known as WINTER.
Antarctic held its coldest winter in known history, in 2021. That's a
sure sign that the phenomenon of NOT-Global-Warming is occurring
throughout the Earth. The temperature gets evened-out in such
Examples of failed Climate Change predictions go as follows :::
~The Maldives were predicted to be underwater by 2018. In 2022, the Maldives are alive and well, with financially affluent human life there.
~ The glaciers of Glacier National park were supposed to be gone by 2020. Actually, there were originally predicted to have been gone by 1948. They are still there, and a lot of snowplowing goes on at Glacier National in April, May, and even June, to make the tourist roads clear.
~And of course, the Arctic Ocean's sea ice didn't completely or even almost melt away in any Summer since the 1988, or in any Summer since 1388. However, in 1904 was the sailing of the Northwest Passage, slightly north of Alaska and the such.
The least amount of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean was during the Summer of 2012. The remaining ice there was still 1.32 million square miles in size. In fact, to travel over the Arctic Ocean's 2012 Summertime sea ice sheet was equivalent to driving from Fargo North Dakota to San Diego California, as well as driving from the Southern border of New Mexico to the northern border of Montana. That is a lot of road travel. That is a lot of Summertime ice. Etc go the examples of failed doomsday prophecies.
There turned out to be a great irony in the Climate Doomsayers having selected of the Year 2020 as the predicted year of completed melting. It goes as follows: In the month of May 2020, North American towns & cities underwent 233 record low temperatures vs a mere 18 record highs for the same month.
See and hear: 233 record lows in month of May 2020
In fact: Antarctica's massive Ross Ice Shelf (the size of Spain) was found to be crystalizing at its bottom, instead of melting in any degree thereof. This was discovered by New Zealand scientists, and it was a decisive discovery:
the Arctic Ocean is the exact same size as is the Antarctic Continent;
5.5 million sq miles. One more thing ::: The largest and driest desert
on Planet Earth is not the Sahara. It's Antarctica.
BTW, Barack Obama
purchased an oceanside mansion located at Massachusetts' Martha's
Vineyard. The president who claimed that ocean levels would tragically
rise is literally at an ocean's shoreline, living in luxury. And Obama
cannot claim that he solved any co2-driven Global Warming problem,
because co2 levels rose throughout Obama's presidency and throughout
every year after his presidency. None the less, during the final years
of his tenure, co2 emissions in America did decline. But, it had no
worldwide effect. CO2 emissions in the United States also declined
during the tenure of President Donald Trump.
In sequence, Hypocrite Extraordinaire, John Kerry, purchased an $11.75 million beachfront mansion which is also in Martha's Vineyard. It's within walking distance of the ocean shoreline. In fact, Kerry owns 18 acres of land there. The logical surmise is that Mr. I'm-Leaving-on-a-Jet-Plane apparently has no belief that the oceans will rise and cause 18 acres of beachfront property to be submerged.
In 2020, Bill and Melinda Gates spent $43 million on an oceanfront mansion in Del Mar California, doing so the year prior to them parting company and going their separate ways as much as is possible for billionaires in charge of a charity organization. Yet, Bill Gates repeatedly warns of sea level rise and the eventual submerging of shoreline property. He spent $43 million on shoreline property.
In the 1970s, there were warnings of Global Cooling and an oncoming Ice Age.
Climate Doomsday Forecasts of the 1970s involved the conjecture that a
mini ice age might be returning. The '70s involved the "decline"
mentioned in the infamous Climategate emails of 2009. Very simply, it
got really cold back then, and this was only 120 years after the last
mini ice age ended. Refer to newspaper and magazine archives, to prove
that articles were being written on the decline of temperatures
throughout the 1960s & 1970s. I was there, as a young child and
then as a teenager. It was cold in the Wintertime. It was really cold.
Then came the Global Warming Scare, on June 23, 1988, with James Hansen in front of the US Senate Committee on Energy & Natural Resources. The kick-off of Climate Doomsday was being announced by Hansen, such as in his prediction that the Maldives would be underwater within 30 years (by 2018). Of course, that never happened in any degree.
Moreover, Hansen ... and others ... have taken raw climate data and changed it, and in having done so, they ever so coincidentally fitted the "newly amended" climate record to their co2 warming assertions. They adjusted the numbers to fit the story line. Doing the numerical changes was called "homogenization" by those changing the temperatures. Others called it fraud. Speaking of government employees committing fraud, watch the following:
All in all, none of Hansen's predictions have come true. Now, in a 2007 deposition, with Hansen being an expert witness in the case, he "averred" (claimed) that most of the Greenland Ice Sheet will have melted by 2107, and that the sea level rise will have amounted to 23 feet. No such melting at the rate predicted is occurring yet. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet is at a range of 6,600 to 9,800 feet high.
The Earth's climate has been a cyclical roller coaster ride throughout its history.
If you want evidence that today's scientists are lying about the 21st Century being the hottest and the one most visited by weather disasters, go to the newspapers archives of 1871, 1878, 1896, 1901, 1906, 1911, 1921, 1922, 1934, 1936, 1954, etc. In fact, go to the 1970s archives, where an oncoming ice age was the predicted event. You will find that climate catastrophes were much more intense and more frequent in the past 80-150 years than they are today. The blame for the climate disasters was originally Solar activity, or the lack thereof. That which was blamed for those weather disasters of the 1970s was ====> Global COOLING.
None the less, if you want to learn about true atmospheric science, purchase a private pilot training course's textbook on Weather Theory.