April 23, 2017

Putting an end to the very Fictional 9/11 U.S. gov conspiracy accusations

For the record,  I'm in construction and I am
very familiar with the power of gravity.  I
was almost killed in a trench wall collapse.
Later, I knew that a certain brick wall was
about to explode, and I had about ten se-
conds to run to safety.  Then ... kaboom.
The World Trade Towers succumbed to
gravity and weaked A36 steel.  Period.
I have a lot to do and have very little time at the moment.  So, perhaps can start
with the following video and learn how common-sensed and predictable was the
collapse of WTC Building #7.  This can spare you from being an embarrassment
to your friends and family.  There's more to add, in order to show you that there
was no controlled implosion, otherwise known as RDX (Thermite) demolition.
The evils of America are in front of everyone's face.  You don't have to look for
darkroom conspiracies.

By the way, concerning the claim that no fire can severe steel beams, uhhhhhhm
we used a torch in government contract work to sever A36 steel beams.  We used
fire to cut steel in half.  So, listen to the ones with experience, as opposed to those
who never was involved in any type of structural work.    10 Q Berry Mulch.


In January of 2014, while I was in Florida, I spoke with a retired carpenter who did
work on the NYC World Trade Towers in the 1970s.  It's confirmed.  Both towers
were made from weaker-than-needed material, and the design was something much
to be desired.

The carpenter spoke from memory and correctly described the design of the towers
as was published in print.  For example, he mentioned the notably small windows on
the outer walls of the towers, as well as the fact that the elevators & stairwells were
in the center of the buildings.  He also mentioned how narrow the hallways were, in
relation to the width of each tower.  So, this man was clearly credible & on target.

The retired carpenter also stated that the Trade Towers weren't intended to be any type
of architectural masterpiece, on account of the fact that the Port Authority was the de-
signer and developer of the project.  He even went as far as satirically saying that the
Trade Towers were of such a sophomoric design that it was a surprise that the Towers
didn't collapse sooner than they did.  He, all by himself, had enough fire power in his
narration to debunk all conspiracy theories attached to the fall of the World Trade Ctr
Perhaps you know the psychosis It's the accusation that the United States government
purposely detonated the World Trade Center towers, as an excuse to invade Bin Laden's
cave in Afghanistan, and even Iraq, in an eventual chase for fantasy WMDs.  Well, the
outlay of stats on the Trade Towers illustrate that the previously mentioned accusation
is a fallacy of the highest degree.  In addition, the United States government would not
sabotage it's own war headquarters in the process, namely the Pentagon.

The World Trade Center theory of an American government demolition conspiracy is
the result of prolonged distrust of a government which repeatedly lied to its citizens
throughout a time span ranging from:  the 1950s Operation Paper Clip days, to the
1950s McCarthysm days, to the Vietnam days, the Agent Orange days, the Water-
gate days, the Iran/Contra days, the Savings & Loans crisis days, the Iraq WMD
fraud, along with the Mortgage Crisis and the cause of, the Great Recession.

The WTC theory is merely a sign of our tabloid times.  It's also a sign of Americans
being so bored with life that they exhilarate themselves by adhering to melodramatic
fiction, such as was the case with the Mayan calendar scare of 2012.

Americans need to deep-six their conspiracy theories and composite paranoia.  That
which needs to be addressed are the injustices blatantly in front of everyone's face.
The borderline psychotic conspiracy theories that you hear on the all night coast to
coast tin foil hat show are nothing more than the diversionary tactics which keep
humanity from righting the wrongs sitting directly in front of mankind.  They are
campfire ghost stories, and the radio show is so popular, because everything else
on nighttime talk radio is so incredibly boring.  For now, however, people need to
understand the following things about each of the two World Trade Center towers
which actually did pancake in September of 2001

The Anatomy of the Trade Towers

The core of each tower was essentially hollow, in that the cores housed the elevators
and stairwells of the towers.  There was no interior wall and no corner-to-corner brac-
ing involved.  The main structure of each tower was a hollow tube comprising close-
ly spaced steel perimeter columns.  The floor trusses were supported by the columns,
and such a design is why the towers fell as they did.  The towers fell from the top
downward.  Demolition involves taking out the supporting structures near and at
the ground floor level.  Thus, there was NO demolition involved on 9/11/01.

In combination, the floor trusses and perimeter columns of the towers formed a steel
lattice which acted as a wind brace, thereby keeping the central core unaffected by any
wind.  Plus, the central core was NOT a part of the main structural system.  The job of
the central core was to support the gravity load imposed upon the building, all the while
supporting the elevator system of each building.  Each system comprised more than 100
elevators per tower.  Incidentally, the outer face of each tower handled horizontal stress.
This translates into handling the wind sheer.

The Trade Towers were extremely light weight, in comparison to their heights which
vertically spanned slightly more than 1,360 feet (415 meters.)   Of each tower's  110
stories, six of them (per tower) were underground.  Each tower was built on landfill.
The bed rock existed 65 feet below ground level.  None the less, a semispherical ex-
cavation was performed, followed by coating the bowl-like hole with a slurry contain-
ing bentonite clay.  The clay's purpose was to keep the Hudson River out of the towers.
However, the danger wasn't going to come from the river.  It would come from the sky.

The reason why the debris of two 110 story buildings comprised a height equivalent
to a few stories was because of the existence of spacious air between the light weight
materials.  According to journalist Jackie Craven, the NYC Trade Towers were 95%

Now, the outer box was 208 x 208 feet (63 x 63 meters.)   On two parallel sides of
the 208 feet span was 120 feet of open plan office space.  On the other two parallel
sides of the towers were 70 feet of open office space, thereby illustrating the hollow
tubular nature of the tower.   In fact, the inner core measured 135 x 87 ft.

Concerning the hollow nature of the towers, the underground car park of each one
held a capacity of 2,000 automobiles, in spacious parking allotments thereof.  Yet,
amidst the spaciousness was 100,000 tons of steel constructed into each tower.

The steel beams of the outer face of the towers were 14 inches wide; 59 columns
per each of the four facades.  Between columns were 22 inch windows.  The win-
dow size was small, only because a principle structural engineer had a pronounced
fear of heights and said that the 22 inch span made a person feel safe in the towers.

In addition, each tower floor consisted in 4 inches of light concrete, placed upon a
33 inch thick prefabricated steel truss laid upon rubber dampers/padding.   In fact,
10,000 dampers were used per tower.  Dampers reduce the forces on a building by
reducing vibrations.

  The Four Most Important Four Things to Keep in Mind about the Trade Towers

- The design of the building was such that there would be NO outward buckling.  This
   is due to something known as a rigid diaphragm design.

- The floor trusses didn't fall first, when the Trade Towers collapsed.  Rather, trusses
   lost their fireproofing and absorbed a tremendous amount of heat, thereby pulling the
   columns inward.  This explains the absence of outward buckling when the towers fell
   straight downward.

- There was thousands of gallons of combustible jet fuel causing intense heat.  Keep in
   mind that the fuel capacity of the Boeing 747, depending on the model thereof, ranges
   from 48,445 to 52,410 U.S. gallons.

- If the jets didn't dislodge the nearby fireproofing, the towers would not have fallen.

Let us review.  Certain individuals claim that members of the United States government
purposely flew remote-controlled jets into each World Trade Tower, and then detonated
the buildings, so as to have an excuse to invade Afghanistan and/or Iraq.  If this were the
case, then why would government members have a jet fly into American military head-
quarters, namely, the Pentagon?  If the government conspirators wanted to have an ex-
cuse to start a war, then why would they sabotage the one place needed to conduct the

In addition, what was the purpose for the Shanksville crash, if all that was needed
was the downing of two skyscrapers in New York City?   In addition, there is cell
phone evidence that foreigners did hijack the four jetliners.  Or were those phone
calls a collective hoax, too?  Are the passengers who never came home living on a
remote island, as a part of this conjectured hoax?   Where are each of the missing
crew members?   In fact, how do people secretly wire two of the most populated
and frequented buildings in the world without anyone taking notice of the wiring?
How is it that no one tripped over the wiring, if wiring had been done shortly be-
fore September 11, 2001?

Republicans, in general, aren't smart enough to do what conspiracy theorists claimed
them to have done.  George Bush Jr wasn't even in the ball park when it came to bas-
ic common sense.  Cheney shoots his own friends.  Sarah Palin has been regarded as
an idiot by more than one person, and Ron Paul allowed a bogus conspiracy claim to
be posted on his site, showing that the absence of discernment and the lack of com-
mon sense actually is contagious.

John McCain is the one who presented Sarah Palin as a viable presidential replace-
ment, yet he never apologized for creating this Frankenstein.  She tested the waters
for a presidential campaign inconsiderate of the fact that, if Americans didn't want
her to be the Vice President, they surely don't want her to be the Commander-in-

Then there's Rick Perry, the power predator who skewed his explanations, concern-
ing the less-than-inspiring statistics about the State of Texas.  Next comes Michele
Bachman who doesn't even know the difference between John Wayne and John
Wayne Gacy.

Now, men of Arabic and anti-christian persuasion attempted to topple one of the
Trade Towers in 1993, because they believed that the effort to destroy said tower
was a holy act that would win for them favor from the Eternal God.  In fact, one
of the failed saboteurs, while being taken away, expressly said that those towers
were going to eventually go down.   Thus, the logical conclusion is that an anti-
American Arabian faction busied itself with taking down those towers, for reli-
gious purposes.  In reality however, it was nothing more than the mass murder
of unarmed civilians.

The 2001 suicide attacks were also meant to frighten people into joining the attack-
er's religion.  The attacks were an act of duress.  An act of intimidation.  Well, the
Nazi regime tried to intimidate other nations into succumbing to its will.  The end
result was that American, Canadian, Russian, British, Norwegian, Polish, Dutch,
Belgian, and French citizens went after the Nazis until the Nazis were no more.

Intimidation is a fatal policy.  You don't want people to be afraid of you.  You want
them to love you.  God made humanity to love, as its ultimate purpose.  In fact, it's
not natural to kill your own kind.  None the less, thousands of unarmed civilians
were killed on September 11, 2001 in the name of God.  The result was that the
Name of God, the Giver of Life, was being presented as the author of hijacking
& death.

Most importantly, the Trade Towers both pancaked, though at different time seg-
ments.   This means that they collapsed from the top downward.  There is no de-
nying this observation.  In demolition, the bottom of the structure is taken out,
and the building succumbs to the laws of gravity, generally speaking.  It's more
detailed than that, of course.  The bottom line is that the Trade Towers weren't
part of a demolition plot of U.S. government officials looking for an excuse to
get America into a war.  There were too many witnesses at the Trade Towers.
Excuses to go to war include remote places that have little to no onlookers.

In the phenomenon of pancaking, only one floor is needed to collapse as a result
of incendiary heat melting the adjacent steel girder frame ... in order for the dom-
inoes to fall.  The heat-severed floor and all floors above it then comprised the
weight that came crashing down on the one floor below.  The additional floor's
weight, along with the weight of the floors above it, crush the next floor.  The
process continues, and the building falls quickly.

Now, proof that there was NO government demolition job on the Trade Towers
consists in the fact that there are survivors who were toward the bottom when the
collapsing started.  This means that there was NO detonated explosives near the
ground floor.   If there were an explosion, those survivors would have been dead
or notably wounded.

When a collapsing building reaches the ground, segments of the building buckle in-
to each other, meaning that there are always to be found open spaces at the bottom
of the collapsed building.  In any of those pockets can be survivors.   This was the
case with the Trade Tower collapse.  Humans in the pockets of WTC buildings were
not killed or wounded by explosions.  Therefore, there was no government conspira-
cy comprising demolition.

Concerning the surrounding buildings, think "trampoline effect."  Place a book or
other small item on one end of a bed and then jump on the other end.   Watch the
book or other small item leap.  It was a tremendous amount of weight which hit the
ground in Manhattan.   When weight so tremendous lands on land, something is go-
ing to be dislodged from its foundation.  Gravity will eventually win out and a per-
ipheral building or two will collapse.  If there were an incendiary flash seen coming
out of the window of an adjacent building, then why is that so surprising?   We live
in the age of electricity and natural gas.  

The claim that the government performed a demolition job on the Trade Towers is,
by far, the single most asinine theory ever.   Bush went into Iraq without having the
excuse of a building being sabotaged.  His excuse was Weapons of Indiscriminate
Destruction.  He called them "weapons of mass destruction."

Know that this text is being written by someone who does have a construction back-
ground, meaning that he learned how gravity works the hard way.  The same author
is a native of the former steel capital of Planet Earth.  His father was a research en-
gineer in the Pittsburgh steel industry who even taught him why the Titanic sheered
open the way it did.  In addition, the author of this text has a sibling who, as a com-
manding officer, was called out to Logan International Airport on 09-11-2001.  Fur-
thermore, the same author spoke with two retired intelligence specialists in 2011 on
a number of topics.  Guess what?   There actually were hijackers on 9-11 and the laws
of gravity are powerful things.   So too is the weight of a skyscraper.  Think of George
WMD Bush as an unconscionable opportunist after the fact, and not an ingenious con-
spirator before the fact.

The Trade Towers were taken down by fanatics who thought that they would enjoy
paradise after murdering thousands of unarmed civilians.   However, you only get in
the afterlife what you give in this life.   If you give people nightmarish Hell scenarios,
your eternal destiny will be the nightmarish Hell scenario that you gave to others.  In
retrospect, there is ZERO evidence and ZERO motive of a 9/11 United States govern-
ment demolition conspiracy.   Some people need to grow up.


Patrick Pontillo








April 21, 2017

Like Fine Crystal in the Book-burning Moonlight

Dwight Eisenhower, on the Subject of Military Spending

It is important to once again take to heart what was spoken by President Dwight
D. Eisenhower, the man most experienced in war and its tragic aftermath, stated
in 1953, fifty years before Bush II began his course of taking the US to the brink
of its own economic destruction:

Every gun that is made, every warship launched, and every rocket fired signi-
fies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed;  those 
who are cold and are not clothed.  This world in arms is not spending money,
solely.  It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, and
the hopes of its children.

The cost of one modern heavy bomber is this:  A modern brick school in more 

than 30 cities.  It's two electric power plants, each serving a town of 60,000
in population.  It's two fine, fully equipped hospitals.  It's some fifty miles of 
concrete highway.  We pay for a single fighter with a half million bushels of 
wheat.  We pay for a single destroyer with new homes that could have housed 
more than 8,000 people.

This, I repeat, is the best way of life to be found on the road the world has 
been taking.  This is not a way of life at all, in any true sense.  Under the 
cloud of threatening war, it is humanity hanging from a cross of iron.

Take note that Ike's 1953 Iron Cross speech isn't his famous January 1961 Military
Industrial Complex speech.  He knew the devastation of war.  He was aware that
exorbitant military spending is assault and battery on the nation doing the spend-
ing.  American military spending of the 1950s was proportionally higher than it is
today, in as far as concerns spending as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product.
 However, in the 1950s, America was a manufacturing nation that was erasing its
post war debt, on account of the many well paid taxpayers.  Furthermore, 's out-
rage of the $695+ billion per year military budget consists in that the U.S. has
spent, in one recent year, as much as the next 23 highest spending nations com-
bined.  Plus, there is the matter of environmental red flags in this era of deplet-
ed uranium ordnance.  This means that even conventional warfare is no longer

Of course, it is true that the American military budget is merely a jobs programs.
Circumstantial evidence consists in the fact that there was the congressional push
to place more tanks in the U.S. arsenal, despite the fact that the Pentagon already
stated that it needs no more cavalry tanks.  Thus, there would be the maintenance
cost of something viewed as a burden on the military.

Years ago, in a political science class, the professor informed us that Southern con-
gressmen, as a matter of course, use the military budget to get taxpayer dollars into
their low income constituencies.  Therefore, this disingenuous habit of Southerns
was recognized decades ago.  All in all, the military budget was a way to get money
into the economically backward South.  This budget has little to do with "patriotism."

As a qualifying statement for the right winged paranoid, a $480 to $520 billion milit-
ary budget or so would be rational, if the United States congress would put a stop to
the runaway Trade Balance Deficit that empowered a ruthless Maoist China via the
by slave labor profiteering of the Walton clan of Arkansas and numerous other self-
seekers.  It's when the budget exceeds $550, $600, and $650 billion that such spend-
ing becomes a future count in a future Nuremberg-type trial.  Such spending literally
becomes criminal, especially depending on the medical verdict of depleted uranium
upon health and the environment.

The fatal error of Southern politicians is that they think that they will be immune for
the privation they have caused America.  This includes the Obstructionist 112th Con-
gress which was the most do-nothing congress in U.S. history.  Republicans need to
study history, as in the Cromwell Regicide trials, Andersonville, Nuremberg, Tokyo,
and even the recent trial of African war criminal Charles Taylor.  So, think.  Reading
Ayn Rand is not the answer.  Reading on how Atlanta was burnt by northerners who
were be undercut economically by the South's no-wage workforce would help too.
If the Republicans insist on remaining functionally illiterate, they who relive history,
as opposed to make history.  Even as the DowJones rises, one can't but help to notice
further diversionary tactics on the part of the Republicans on air and in congress.
Overspending results in too much rust. 
Republicans display chicken hawk contempt toward youths who don't help increase
the United States' run-away national debt which is augmented via exorbitant military
spending.  The irony today is that the newly enlisted youths who take the oath to de-
fend this nation are helping to destroy it with the amount of military spending that
a heavily indebted and non-manufacturing-based United States is forced to accrue,
on account of the stereotypical Republican Gun-toting TEA Party supporter.

It's predictable to see chicken hawks such as Limbaugh, Boehner, O'Reilley, Gingrich,
Beck, Cantor, Hannity, and Dr. "I'm Banned in England" (who never spent a minute
in boot camp) get on the megaphone and then badger America's youth to do what the
chicken hawks avoided doing.  Those youths are merely pawns in a money making
scheme.  This brings us back to Ike's fatherly warning to America, as in the warning
about the Military Industrial Complex.  Ironically, he was a Republican.  Yet, the Re-
publicans of today ignore him.  Of course, they only ignore him because they are
Southern Democrats at heart.

The oxymoron is that, when enlisting to protect the United States, an American youth
ends up financially pounding the final nail in America's coffin.  Due to George WMD
Bush and his Republican cohorts, America can no longer afford GI Joe.  The Republi-
cans weakened a nation by acting tough with the blood of others for consecutive years
at a time.  Soldiers of the National Guard were being forced into foreign tours of duty,
a couple of continental plates away.  However, the National Guard is designed to al-
ways stay home and be the last line of defense for a nation.  It shouldn't be traveling
over an ocean.  In fact, the National Guard is that well formed militia mentioned in
the 2nd Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, so designed to prevent the government
from becoming a tyranny.  It didn't work.  The tyrant George Bush sent the National
Guard packing to a desert far far away.

In addition, American soldiers of the regular armed forces were forced into two and
three tours of duty thousands of miles from home.  This was ruthless, and as a result,
Corporate Bailout Bush drained and weakened the United States by playing the role
of Mr. Bring-it-on.  Eight and ten years of wasted time were spent on two theaters
of war, along with $1.6 trillion spent.  Yet, there was not a single tank battle or naval
encounter throughout that entire time.  There wasn't even a single aerial dog fight.  In
fact, the Aussies and Americans ended up finding Iraqi aircraft in poor condition, on
the ground and even under the ground, buried.  So, why was all the money spent?

Despite this fact, those two wars accounted for one quarter of the national debt that
has accumulated since 2001 ... according to the Christian Science Monitor.  Iraq has
accounted for 4,487 American deaths, while Afghanistan accounted for 1,863.

Then comes wounded military personnel.  Even in December of 2011, casualties in Af-
ghanistan were mounting.  In the Year 2010, while America was watching TV house-
wives and certain celebrities of no particular talent, 700 United States soldiers died in
Afghanistan.  Americans act as if they don't even care.  Maybe it's because they don't.

In the same time span and at the same theater of war, 5,000 U.S. troops were wound-
ed.  Young men of America, listen:  Don't die for ungrateful people who obsess them-
selves with Botox Barbies.  And don't die for the sake of someone's war profiteers. 

The Enduring Cost of a Freedom that Didn't Endure

Then there is the cost of the aftermath of war, for years to come.  The same Christian
Science Monitor stated that $600 to $900 billion in long-term medical care and disa-
bility compensation is already owed by the United States to the veterans of both pro-
longed wars.  In 2008, U.S. Medicine reported that 600,000 Americans were treat-
ed at Veteran hospitals.

In the failure of the George Bush War years, one needs to be reminded that he and his
staff violated every premise of Sun Tzu's Art of  War.  Sun Tzu would never have wat-
er boarded anyone, in the first place.  Secondly, the terrorists were criminals and NOT
soldiers.  This is because, if they were soldiers, then they violated the Rules of Engage-
ment and became criminals in the process.  They let civilians be targeted.  Stated for
the record, you're not permitted to target civilians, including those in New York sky-

There was another costly after-effect of the Reagan Close-down-industry Complex.
Reagan manipulated the economy in such a way that the only way in which a number
of young Americans could get a job was to join the military.  This now translates in-
to highest of all government price tags ... the pension ... both government and military.
the bills which sent America's manufacturing base to Sweatshopville were the United
States' suicide notes.  American manufacturing employees paid much more tax and
spent more on multiplier-effect enhancing products than do coffee shop barristers
absorbed in college loan debt.

Why was so much taxpayer money wasted on the military industrial mind set?  The
Bible which used to be read in America stated, "Blessed are the peace makers;" not
the war makers.  Yet, Reagan had the audacity to call a nuclear missile a peace mak-
er.  Well, it didn't make peace.  It merely delayed a more concentrated and devastat-
ing series of wars in the future.  Meanwhile, Chicken Hawk Reagan let many neglect-
ed things eventually blow up in the face of society.  He left behind a land mine of so-
cial ills.


At present, the United States is in need of research engineers and environmental ex-
perts who can benefit health and daily civilian life, in the States and American terri-
tories.  If there's no appreciable life for millions of indebted civilians, then what is
there left to defend?  It's the 1% who destroyed the American Dream.  Giving your
military service toward those greed-stricken people would translate into a nightmare
for you.  Ask the three-tour Iraq/Afghan vets.

When military expert Wesley Clark said "re-deploy" to a place outside of Iraq, pushy
Chicken Hawks of gutless wonder called him a sissy.  You need to be reminded that
General Clark was the commander of the NATO alliance, and unlike chicken hawks,
he did attend boot camp.  He knows what thousands of chicken hawks don't know.
However, he was ever so coincidentally a democrat.  Thus, he was bashed, despite
the fact that he had the money-saving and life-saving answer at the moment of chaos.

America needed to save its ordnance and dollars for a real war.  The Bush II years
were the ones that were slowly making the United States defenseless, in the name
of Patriotism and "free market" economics.  The Bush version of  "free market eco-
nomics" resulted in a lot of people losing their freedom in foreign labor camps.  In
the process, he elevated military spending via two wars, all the while lowering the
tax rate for those rich made their money through the ultimate form of parasitic con-
duct ... namely, of off sweatshop laborers cheated of the rightfully due wages.  Thus,
Bush did what it took for America to be unable to pay for war against an enemy
that had zero navies, zero air forces, zero armored divisions, zero paratroopers,

You need to know that Iraqi Christianity was NOT the Ann Coulter-type thereof.  For
those of you who don't care ... or who are clueless ... Iraqi Christianity is known as the
Chaldeon Rite of Catholicisim.

All that the Republicans accomplished by invading Iraq was to have true Christians
on this earth persecuted to literal car-bombing death.  Incidentally, the authenticity
of Iraq's Chaldean Christianity comes from the fact that it can be traced to the origi-
nal apostles who were NOT money-grabbing TV evangelists whose ancestors saw
many a black man left hanging deader than death on tree branches located near lead
infested moonshine stills of brain damaging fame.

The Similarities Between
the Territory-grabbing Nazi Party and Money-grabbing Republican Party

There are further parallels between the Nazi Germans and the American Republicans.
Whereas the Nazi Germans sought to take the infirm to concentration camps, the Re-
publicans seek to take them off Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid.   Whereas
the Nazi Germans sought to dumb-down its citizens by book burning, the Republicans
seek to do so by cutting education and even by deleting the Department of Education
itself.  This is typical for a party whose candidates include those who were unable to
name one Supreme Court case, who could not remember the cabinet positions desig-
nated for axing, and who could not refrain from cutting a State fire fighting budget dur-
ing a drought of Biblical proportions which torched a landmass larger than the entire
State of Connecticut.

Finally, whereas the Nazi Germans used the radio to spread its lying propaganda, the
Republican Party uses the radio to spread its one-line slogans and multiple diatribes.
In sequence, whereas the Nazi Germans sought to eliminate all opposing radio voices,
the American Republicans cut off National Public Radio from government funding.
The only thing that has kept the Republicans from entirely destroying this nation is a
few remaining checks and balances in the U.S. Constitution. Even at that, there is the
Florida case where a person testing the voting machines found that his votes for dem-
ocratic candidates registered as votes for Republicans.

As far as goes the socialist element, it was the Republicans under Bush II who gave
$700 billion to the corporate cronies known for donating money to Republican poli-
ticians.  In fact, the Republicans were actually bailing themselves out.  Now, as far
as goes the word Socialist in Nazi German title, there is nothing social about taking
the disabled to gas chambers.  Nazi Germany wasn't very socialist.

The Napoleon Maneuver

The Nazi Germans were draining their nation's economy through military spending.
The game plan was to steal the wealth of the nations that its troops would conquer.
This included the oil fields of Ploesti Romania and the art of Europe.  In as much,
the road that Republican America has been traveling is the same one that Nazi Ger-
many traveled.  The United States was on the brink of bankruptcy during the years
of Bring-it-on Bush, when two wars were being waged and when unneeded tax cuts
were enforced for the very greedy who caused an elevation in the chronic trade bal-
ance deficit that continues to drain American money into a Communist dictatorship.
This ensured that there would not be the revenue needed to pay for two wars which
endured twice as long as the Second World War.  When an army's congress stops
delivering it paychecks, what does that army do?  Throughout history, pillage and
plunder was the modus operandi of armies.  Napoleon was infamous for it.

When the marching band music begins to echo off the buildings of Main Street, and
when the majorettes start to twirl their batons, you can rest assured that in very close
proximity will be a Republican politician equipped with warmongering diatribes that
we in America can recite in our sleep.   You can also rest assured that lobbyists will
be equally near the Republican politician, waving his flag on Main Street for him.  So,
if the Fuhrer's black boot fits and if his propaganda minister's monocle shines like fine
crystal in the book-burning moonlight ... 


April 19, 2017

CIA Report: Reagan was complicit in Iraq's chemical attacks against Iran.

Plus, he saw no evil during the Kurdish genocide campaign.  Add the Argentine Dirty War, Pinochet's Chile, & S. African Apartheid.  Quit praising him as God.  He was
a mere C student and only had the prowess of a 1930s book-keeper.

A ranking  member of the United States Congress went on a FoxNews broadcast and
boldly proclaimed that Ronald Reagan would have never tolerated the Assad regime
gassing its own people.  She made it sound as if Reagan would have pounded his gold-
en fist on a table and magically sent forth a myriad of heavily armed John Waynes, to
avenge the citizens of Syria.

Bill O'Reilly did the same thing and then proceeded to belittle the rapidly graying
President Obama.  O'Reilly made it look as if  Reagan were a superhero walking
onto a battlefield, crushing chemical warfare canisters with his hands.  Well, the
truth is that Ronald Reagan tolerated Saddam Hussein's gassing of Iranians and
Kurds, as a matter of course ... habitually so.  Thus, if Reagan were here today,
he would be looking the other way, ignoring the entire scenario.

The ranking congressional member, incidentally, was Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, chairwoman
of the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on the Middle East.  This is an example of
American taxpayer dollars in action.




In addition, weapon's grade anthrax was sent to Iraq during the Reagan years, via the
U.S. Dept of Commerce ... under the Reagan-appointed supervision of none other than
Donald Rumsfeld.  In fact, Iraq purchased eight strands of anthrax from the U.S.A, dur-
ing Reagan years, specifically during the time when the Iran/Contra pea & shell game
was transpiring.

Let us not forget that the Argentine Dirty War transpired during the Reagan years, with
Reagan doing nothing about the genocide committed against the Argentinian people.
Thus, Reagan's track record shows that he would have looked the other way, as soon
as Assad unleashed his chemical ordnance upon his own people.




The Reagan administration provided Hussein with intelligence disclosures, as to the
Iranians' battlefield locations, during the long Iran/Iraq War.  In the process, Reagan
served the function hypocrite, in having his personnel condemn Hussein publicly, all
the while accommodating him privately with the gassing of Iranian positions.




The United States and the nation of Iraq were signatories of the 1925 Geneva Protocol.
This is a treaty which banned the use of asphyxiating chemicals in warfare.  So, Ronald
Reagan, liar that he was, hid the fact that, without the technology of the United States,
Saddam Hussein wouldn't have been successful at gassing the Iranians.  This assistance
constituted Reagan bieng an accomplice in violating the Geneva Protocol.

Now, when a nation signs a treaty, it becomes law.  The signing nation is bound to the
treaty, by law.  So, Reagan violated United States law in the case of Saddam Hussein.

In addition, the Republicans made Reagan look like a mighty lion who would not re-
treat from anywhere or back down to anyone.  Well, Reagan pulled the U.S. marines
out of Lebanon, after having put them there to serve the function of scarecrows.  The
problem is that they were sitting ducks, 241 of whom died at the hands of merely one
terrorist act.  In as much, Reagan's track record shows that he would NOT have stood
up to Assad in any capacity.  After all, the Syrians weren't white enough for Reagan's
concern, in the first place.

Proof that the previous statement was true, and not merely sarcastic snideness, Ronald
'Racist' Reagan vetoed the Comprehensive Apartheid Act.  In addition, while campaign-
ing for the governorship of California, he defended 'the right' of white home owners to
refuse to sell their homes to African-American buyers.  In the 1960's, there were places
called "Restricted Neighborhoods."  It meant "White Only."  Reagan defended racism
in the 1960s.

Back to Reagan's complicity in the violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol:




The tactics of Iran's notorious Ayatollah Khomeini were not foreseen by the authors
of the Geneva Protocol, because no one would have expected the rise of a ruthless
dictator who would have the youth of his nation walk unarmed into land mines and
enemy machine gun fire.  This tactic was referred to as the Human Wave Tactic.

Yes, thousands of Iranian citizens would literally be recruited to be sacrificial lambs
and walk into Iraqi machine gun fire, as well as in mine fields.  The tactic would re-
suIt in Iraqi machine guns overheating, buckling, and locking.  Therefore, the only
way to stop a human wave, concluded the Iraqis, was by chemical ordnance.  Of
course, a B-52 air raid could have decimated the wave, but that tactic was for the
world powers who could afford strategic bombing techniques.

Keep in mind that the human wave of Iranians constituted a threat to the lives and
safety of Iraqi soldiers.  They became belligerent soldiers, themselves.  Thus, it was
permitted to fire upon them.  It's just that the 1925 Geneva Protocol did NOT antici-
pate someone as lawless as the Iranian dictator who, in the name of religion, sent
unarmed civilians to certain death.  HOWEVER, Hussein dedicated himself to the
annihilation of the Kurds in the north of Iraq.   This is where the line was drawn,
ethically speaking.  This policy cannot be defended in any court of public opinion.

This extermination campaign against the Kurds endured from 1986 to 1989.  It con-
sisted in sending Kurdish males to "detention camps," such as the one in Kirkuk.  It
was very intense times that didn't get detailed press in the West.  None the less, the
Iranian ayatollah of the 1980s manipulated the assassination of Egyptian president,
Anwar Sadat.  He targeted Sadat for assassination, simply because Sadat called him
a mad man on commercial television ... CBS newsman Mike Wallace who ended up
being treated for severe depression, allegedly because Vietnam chief of staff, Gen-
eral Westmoreland sued Mike for liable.  However, Mike Wallace triggered the
words which got Sadat killed.

During Ronald Reagan's final year as president, on the eve of Saint Patrick's Day,
the Iraqis committed chemical genocide upon a region that fell out of the hands
of the Iraqi government two days prior.  It started on March, 16, 1988, in Halabja,
northern Iraq.  There were 10,000 to 15,000 casualties, 3,000 to 5,0000 of whom
were fatalities.  Lingering illness resulted.  Even ten years after the attack, there
were about 700 people who remained ill.

The United Kingdom expressly stated that punitive actions against Iraq would have
a detrimental effect.  The policy was to continue to have dialogue and interaction
with Hussein.  Of course, the United States previously helped England during the
Falkland Island War.  So, no one was going to expect England to have a policy con-
trary to Reagan's policy.  Of course, Margaret Thatcher, the British prime minister
infamous for siding with dictators was in power at the time.

Documents dating as far back as 1983 show that the United States government was
well aware that Hussein was using chemical weaponry.  In fact, the genocide cam-
paign against the Kurds began two calendar years before the Halabja chemical at-
tack.  Yet, Reagan didn't intervene.  He basically gave Hussein a proverbial blank
check ... a get out of jail free card.  Thus, if Reagan would have put his first down,
concerning Saddan Hussein, we would never have been the two Iraq wars.  This
is because Hussein was emboldened by Reagan's negligence and complicity.

Reagan most certainly set up the world for the first Iraq War, but only in combina-
tion with the fact that George Bush I told the Hussein regime that its dispute with
Kuwait was not the Americans' concern.  Hussein took that message to be a green
light for invasion.  After all, Hussein used chemical weaponry repeatedly, with no
objection from the United States government.  Thus, Reagan's complicity with
Hussein is what created a middle eastern Frankenstein ... a pit bull unleashed
again Iran. 

As Argentina goes, so goes the world ... spoken in the early 20th Century

Let us not forget that the Argentinian Dirty War transpired during the Reagan years,
with Reagan doing nothing about it ... about the genocide committed against the Ar-
gentinian people.  Thus, Reagan's track record shows that he would have looked the
other way, as soon as Assad unleashed his chemical ordnance upon his own people.




Reagan's support of the Pinochet dictatorship, in obstructing 
any justice to be administrated upon the Chilean tyrant.

During Reagan's first year in office, he abrogated ... rescinded ... made null and void
the sanctions that the Carter administration imposed upon Pinochet's Chile.  Reagan's
excuse for supporting dictators who committed crimes against humanity was that he
was fighting the injustices of Soviet Russian expansionism.  Thus, in the name of
justice, Reagan allowed criminal injustices.




Reagan became another George Wallace, Strom Thurmond, and Jefferson Davis in
vetoing the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986.  In fact, he became the
trio of racism a month earlier, in a vehement speech condemning the congression-
al act.  The act officially included the US Congress calling for the release of polit-
ical prisoner, Nelson Mandela.  Thus, Reagan had no problem with the idea of
Nelson Mandela being a prisoner perpetually.


America, you need to stop worshiping the buffoon and coward, Ronald Reagan, be-
cause collective psychosis turns nations into mutations of Nazi Germany.

In conclusion, FoxNews once again aired a person who lied about Reagan, making
that pathetically remedial actor look like the Messiah of humanity.  Reagan did on-
ly a few good things ... most of which were done at the prompting of Tip O'Neill.

None the less, by his actions one could tell that Reagan despised equality.  He did
did what it took to bring back a robber baron class to the States, solely out of his
apparent disrespect for the working man ... including the workers who built air
ports, docks, bridges, and skyscrapers ... who farmed the fields and maintained
the orchards ... who kept automobiles from being death traps ... who delivered
material to stores, hospitals, and construction sites ... who kept society from
turning into a mass of chaos.  All that Reagan did was create a rust belt.

April 15, 2017

France had an empire and still exists. There is no more Confederacy.

                             In re:  The conservative right wing's hatred toward the French.
Gettysburg was the beginning of the South going down on its knees.
During the government shut down of 2013, a Republican politician, in the spirit that preceded the burning of Atlanta, spoke of his resolve in this way: "We're not French.  We don't surrender."  He surrendered.

Southerners surrendered during the first American Civil War, to the tune of 462,634 troops, twice the number as Union troops.  It's Southerners who are the cowards, hiding behind their guns.  

All in all,  Americans do NOT appreciate the aggressive operatives in our country trashing our European allies.  In as much, I would like to take the opportunity to apologize to the French, on behalf of Americans, for the insults hurled at you from those who live between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans also, but who have zero sense of civility.  I am so sorry that they repeatedly did that to you.  My dad had the kindest regards for you, and he was a decorated Air Force combat vet who witnessed fellow airmen literally go up in flames or hurl down toward the earth in a black trail of smoke..

The United States Needs France.
It Does NOT Need the Oppressive South.

For the record, I lived in the South for the vast majority of ten years, heading back to the North for a few Spring/Summer months.  I even then returned to the former Confederate South for a while, to the Shenandoah Valley.  Thus, I have experience with the Southern mindset, up close and personally.  Thank God for the North and West.

I can assure that we can do well without North and South Carolina.  But, we can't do will without France or England.  Add the Netherlands and Belgium, too.   In fact, I would love to see America substantiate an alliance with the Ukraine.  In as much, if you're an American vehemently against the idea of having foreign allies. then I can assure you that you're an inbreeder at heart.  

All in all, the South has always been detrimental to the United States.   The South has been a total pain.  If it  were to secede from the Union, it would be doing America a favor.  Northerners would be spared of a lot of tax dollars draining into the good ole boy South.

Let us begin:

In the proud, stubborn, and very short-lived Confederacy,  the national pastimes came to be:  1} primitive surgery,  2} surrendering,  3} watching its cities burn; literally.  NO joke.  No sarcastic statement.  The South was completely conquered and completely at the mercy of the North.  They still are.  The Northern states are the taxpayer states.  The Southern states are the tax-taker states.  The South has been leeching off of the North, and then the Sean Hannitys of this world get
the rural dwellers to believe the exact opposite of the statistical truth.

In contrast, the France whom the typical neo-confederate mocks, still had free forces throughout WWII, along with an effective underground network.  In fact, during the Battle of France, in 1940, the allies inflicted heavy casualties upon the Germans.  The Germans did NOT stroll into Paris.  

The historian tally for Nazi German casualties during the Battle of France (1940) was  27,074 KILLED and 111,037 wounded.  Thus, the French weren't the pansies that the White Trash and ornery right wingers of America made them out to be.  

During the Battle of France, the German Luftwaffe lost 1,129 aircraft in combat, according to the official stats.  So, it is a fatal error to think of the French as push-overs.  I would fight next to a Frenchman in a heartbeat.  I'm never willing to fight next to any Southerner who is not from Louisiana or Texas or the northern half of Mississippi.  Period.  As far as goes the eastern part of the American South, no dice.  
Spare me.

Even during the Battle for the Hague, in the Netherlands, the Germans lost half of its 8,000 paratroopers to death and prisoner-of-war status.  In their capturing of Holland, Belgium, and France, the Germans lost more troops and aircraft than assumed by those who never looked at a history report on the subject.

One more thing:  The French almost won the Battle of Waterloo.  The Prussians showed-up at 4 in the afternoon.  That was when the French split their forces into two parts and weakened.  The stereotypical American Southerner is simply jealous and tells lies.  There is nothing American about Southerners.  To be American is to give people the chance to talk things out and figure out what's going-on.

Unlike the sum total of Confederate forces, the French Free Forces NEVER surrendered.  If this were not true, then Charles de Gaulle would have never become a household name in the decades to follow.  In the darkest hours that France was enduring, De Gaulle remained poised at recapturing Paris.  Thus, the Southerners of today have the untold ... and bratty ... audacity to mock the French, after all of the surrendering the South did.  Proof that Southerners have a history of cowardice exists in the white hoods that cover their faces during cross burnings.

Incidentally, the Nazis broke international law, in order to takeover Paris.  They went  through Belgian territory, and the French didn't think that the Germans would do so.  In as much, the Germans had to CHEAT, in order to beat the French.

The French Underground who never surrendered to the Nazis inflicted strategic damage upon the Nazi infrastructure, while keeping the Jedburgh airbase (in Ain) perfectly in tact.  Simultaneously, the French underground delivered to the allied command a lot of needed information, thereby saving thousands of allied lives.  This included the details of the Atlantic Wall.

Plus, the French rescued a lot of downed U.S. airmen.  The French rescued these airmen at their own peril, and is this the thanks that the  France get from America?  Only the Southern trash we find throughout the congressional seats of government would be so ungrateful.  Without the French underground, there would have never been the concise information direly needed by the 8th Army Air Force who ended up destroying Nazi Germany's war-making capacity.

The Confederates had raiders during the American Civil War, but they never came close to the operational effectiveness of the French underground in Nazi territory.  Moreover, the French had their nation returned to them in complete victory.  The South suffered a 100% loss, including the loss of cities by means of fires started and finished by Northerners who became tired of the games Southerners were 

In Light of the Oppressiveness of the Southern Mindset

I can assure you that a Rand Paul presidency or a TEA Party congress will result in far worse upheaval than that which was witnessed in 1968/69.  Southerners are very oppressive.  That is their history.

By the way,  Texans will be scheming to get the price of gasoline to rise to previously crippling levels.  That is when the North will blow a gasket, because the South has been leeching off the North and its higher population, all along.

Let us review:  There is STILL a landmass called France.  There is NO landmass called the Confederacy in any form of power, at all.  There are just cross burners in the woods.  In the end, the French were victorious in WWII.  They won back their nation and prevented many 8th Army Air Force debacles.  This White Trash Talk of the South must end.  They have been doing this since the end of the Civil

So, here is the situation:  The South suffered complete defeat, while hundreds of thousands of Southerners surrendered to Northerners.  Yet, the redneck congressmen had the audacity to mock the French who kept fighting at the Somme, the Marne, during the Siege of Parish, during the Norman conquest of the English, and at many other venues marked by French victories.  All in all, I would be willing to have American forces fight along side a Dutchman, a Frenchman, or an Italian before any unit of Southerners, being that the aforementioned Europeans would be much more adaptable on a battlefield, with a Plan B & Plan C ready to be employed.

If the French are a nation of surrendering sissies, 
then how do you explain the following?

1} Napoleon's army.   2} the Parisians who defeated the Danish Vikings during the Siege of Paris.   3}  Charles Martel,  4} Charlemagne,  5} William the Conquerer's French army,  6} Simon of Montfort,  7} Simon V of Montfort,  8}  Joan of Arc's army,  9} Gilbert du Moitier (also known as the Marquis of La Fayette),  10} the General Rochambeau who rescued George Washington from his military incompetence, 11} the French Underground,  12}  those Frenchmen who fought in the Battle of the Somme, as well as 13} the Battle of the Marne,  14} the French marine units who went over the Iraqi fire trenches during the First Gulf War, 15} the French Revolution, 16} the vast French Empire.

A lot of pampered Americans spoke as if they could easily take-on and subdue the French with a bag of Doritos in their hands, while listening to the rotund chicken hawk, drug addict, and college fail-out, Rush "the Viagra Smuggler" Limbaugh ... and doing so without breaking stride.  Firstly, America is the second fattest nation on earth, and Limbaugh is one of the pioneers in American obesity.  Secondly, on a per capita basis, the French have been taking home more Olympic medals than the Americans.  This is also the case with Australia and Hungary, as it applies to the Summer Olympics only.

Furthermore, a Special Forces American told me in Florida that the French special forces troops are the ones who are the most knowledgeable in war technology, while on the field.  Now, he said that the Italian special forces personnel are the acrobats of the Western allies, but it's the French who can improvise on the battle field, as if to be college professors.

In conclusion, you can call the French rude, but you can't call them a bunch of sissies.  Of course, the French enigma came from France losing to Hitler.  Well, jn order for the Nazis to conquer France, it had to bypass the massive Maginot Line, and break international law by invading France through neutral Belgium.

During the battle for Paris, 15% of the French  army was out of the equation manning the Maginot Line that the Nazis avoided, because they knew they couldn't beat the French in any one on one match.  The Nazis KNEW that they were no match for the French, in a head-to-head conflagration.  The French would have mangled their armored units.

Southern man, according to his own history, only understands low wages, good ole boy cronyism, crying wolf, using religion to deceive the people, lying about other people, lying about other nations, gerrymandering, complaining about environmental law, cross burning, lynch mobbing, despising the UN, and cursing international law.  Such is the mindset of an isolationist inbreeder.  Southerners do NOT deserve to be called Americans.   They would dismantle the United 
States and reestablish the Confederacy instantly, if they had a chance to do so.

Do not be deceived by their obsessive flag waving.  They would replace the Stars and Stripes with the Johnny Reb flag in one mere heartbeat ... from my personal observations ... in my opinion.

France:  A Imperial Power ... Unlike the Confederate South

A nation of sissies doesn't amass an empire reaching from Southeast Asia to Northern Africa to Central Africa to North America and the northern tip of South America.  Yes, even from the Three Rivers region of Pittsburgh Pennsylvania to as far South as New Orleans, was French imperial territory.

The British Empire which was at its height shortly after World War I lost much of its influence.  In a dominoes effect, long after having lost America, it lost its jewel.  Its jewel was India.  Then, the United Kingdom lost its Opium War prize, Hong Kong, along with Burma (aka Myanmar), Ceylon, most of Ireland, Ghana, the Gold Coast, Kenya, Zanzibar, rainless Botswana, Gambia, Lesotho, Bahrain, Qatar, Tonga, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Belize, and other nations which have a right to independence.  Simply because the United Kingdom downsized itself, it does not make the English sissies.  The same goes for the French Empire.  Southerners always have to belittle someone, in order to make themselves feel great.

So, why would Americans think that the American Empire is immortal, especially now that it has been sabotaged by Reaganomics and the ensuring of long-term Trade Balance Deficit, as well as Johnny Reb politicians who did shutdown the federal government, in the Spirit of attacking Fort Sumter?

Any new West Hemisphere empire ... any replacement American empire in the near future, will either be that of Brazil or a new political entity in the landmass now recognized as the United States ... but such a land will have to weed out the backward, neo-confederate, self-seeking, good ole boy operatives.  

It was the Johnny Reb and the Jerry Falwell Fundamentalist who shutdown our federal government.  They then blamed it on Obama, as if we in the north are so stupid as to believe them.  Well, they're the ones with the embarrassing low SAT scores and every other type of test score.  In fact, high tech companies refused to relocate to South Carolina, because, according to the assessments, the state which started the first civil war didn't have people in the 21st Century intelligent enough to perform the high tech work.

The Ted Cruz Irony

Ted Cruz was hailed as the great prophet of the TEAS, and therefore, the great prophet of the Southern mindset.  What is wrong with this picture?  ANS:  Cruz prided himself on graduating from an Ivy league school ... a Yankee school ... a northern school.  Well, if the South is so superior, then Cruz must be regarded persona non gratis, for his Yankee influence.

The other irony of the South is that former Georgia congressman Newt Gingrich was a native of Harrisburg Pennsylvania.  That's near the Gettysburg which was the beginning of the end for the Johnny Rebs.

Southern politicians need to quit insulting our intelligences up here ... up here in the land of MIT, the Ivy League, the Big Ten, Lehigh, Pitt, Notre Dame, Case Western Reserve, the Cleveland Clinic, the Mayo Clinic, Mt. Sinai Med Center, the Seven Sister Colleges, Chicago Univ, Carnegie-Mellon, Williams College, Amherst, Swarthmore, Haverford, Middlebury, Colgate, Bowdoin, etc.  They also need to do something about the ridiculously high cost of a college education and end the college loan trap.

April 13, 2017

Boadicea was a war criminal who targeted unarmed civilians for death

The following refers to the Battle of Watlings Street, fought in 60 or 61 A.D.

Queen Boadicea didn't know how to control her temper, and being the personifi-
cation of your own rage will result in you swinging wildly and missing your target.
Meanwhile, you'll get hit so hard that you'll get knocked out, while fighting angry.
This is what happened to the Queen Boadicea who didn't differentiate soldier from
civilian.  When she attacked civilian neighborhoods, she committed war crimes, per
se.  Therefore, she was destined to quickly fall.

Filled with blood thirsty vengeance, Boadicea attacked a heavily outnumbered Roman
legion that was perfectly placed in a defensive position.  The first wave of Boadicea's
attack was easily repelled.  So too was the second and third one.  Now, when you fail
repeatedly in your battle plan, you must change it or you will get annihilated.  This is
what happened to Boadicea's army.

Then, the Romans marched forward and became the attackers.  They killed everyone
in sight.  They kept moving forward, and in short order, they were no longer the heavi-
ly outnumbered ones.  Boadicea, in all of her toughguyness fled.  She wasn't as tough
as she was made out to be.

Boudicea's outrage was caused by one Roman tax collector who fled England, rather
than stand his ground.  After all, what he did to Boadicea's two daughters was crimi-
nal.  But Boadicea had to revenge every other Roman in sight, for the crime of one,
and that was her downfall.

Someone with a vengeful temper as wild as Boadicea should never be the leader of
anything.  It came to the point where she became the leader of nothing.  She caused
her own fall.  Now, when you hear someone immortalizing of Boudicca, they are do-
ing nothing more immortalizing a murderer.  She killed unarmed civilians.  She then
led her maniacal soldiers into the jaws of a very mechanical lion.  Her military foolish-
ness killed her own people.

Great military leaders plan to have their soldiers defend themselves, in anticipation
of the worse-case scenario.  Boudicea didn't do that.  Therefore, she really didn't care
about her people.  Whenever a leader doesn't care about his/her people, the people are
guaranteed to die.  Hitler was a prime example.  Even Berlin was turned into rubble.

When you attack, your first move must be one defensive one.  Thus, the U.S. military
policy is to first demolish the enemies eyes & ears, as well as its surface-to-air missile
systems.  You need to put the SAM's out of commission before you send your fighters
and bombers  into the heart of enemy territory.

All in all, Queen Boadicea makes for a worthless and even detrimental mentor.  There
is nothing of value in her.  At the most, her example can teach what to never do in life.
In as much, if you encounter a person who starts praising her, part company with that
person.  Go elsewhere.  Make new friends.  Boudicea was a friend of no one.

April 11, 2017

The 8th Army Air Force: Cool, collected, calmness under fire.

The following excerpts come from famed journalist and eventual war casualty
Ernie Pyle.  They describe the experience of seeing and hearing the 8th Army
Air Force approach an enemy target and then unleash its fire power upon its tar-
get.   More specifically, they come from the journalist's account of the July 25,
1944 bombing of the Panzer Lehr Division near St. Lo, France.  At the time of
the air raid, American troops were approximately 1,500 yards from the targeted
Panzer Lehr troops, making the air raid a surgical military operation:

...  "And then a new sound gradually droned into our ears.   The sound 
     was deep and all encompassing, with no notes in it --- just a gigantic 
     far away surge of doom-like sound.   It was the heavies." ...

...  "I've never known a storm or a machine or any resolve of man that
       had about it the aura of such ghastly relentlessness." ...

... "The Germans began to shoot heavy, high ack-ack (88mm canon fire).
      Great black puffs of it by the score speckled the sky until it was hard
      to distinguish the smoke puffs from the planes.   And then, someone
      shouted that one of the planes was smoking.  Yes, we could all see it." ...

... "But before it was done there were more cries of 'There's another one 
      smoking, and there's a third one now!'  Chutes came out of some of 
      the planes, and out of some came no chutes at all." ... 

... "And all that time the great flat ceiling of the sky was roofed by all
     the others that didn't go down,  plowing their way forward,  as if
     there were no turmoil in the world.   Nothing deviated them by the 
     slightest.   They stalked on slowly,  with a dreadful pall of sound, 
     as though they were seeing only something at a great distance and 
    (as if) nothing existed in between."   ...

..."and then the bombs came.   They began ahead of us as a crackle 
     of popcorn and almost instantly swelled into a monstrous fury of 
    noise that seemed surely to destroy all the world ahead of us.  From   
    then on, for an hour and a half that had in it the agonies of the cen-
    turies, the bombs came down." ...

..."By now everything was an indescribable cauldron of sound.   Indi-
    vidual noises did not exist.  The thundering of motors in the sky and
    the roar of the bombs ahead filled all the space (spatial capacity) for 
    noise on earth.   Our own artillery was crashing all around us,  yet 

    we could hardly hear it."

  A narration of the same event, as was seen by General Fritz Bayerlein,

  the commanding Nazi officer caught in the middle of it, goes as follows: 

"The entrenched infantry was either smashed by the heavy bombs while 
  in their foxholes and dugouts or else they were killed and buried by the 
  blast.   Infantry and artillery positions were blown up.  The bombed-out
  area was entirely transformed into a field covered with craters, where no 
  human was left alive.   Tanks and guns were destroyed and overturned, 
  unable to be recovered, because all roads and passages were blocked." 

  General Bayerlein also wrote: 

"The shock effect was nearly as strong the physical effect" ... "Some of the 
   men got crazy and were unable to carry out anything.   I was personally 
   in the center of the bombardment and could experience the tremendous 
   effect.  For me, one who, during this war, was at every theater of opera-
   tion, and who had been assigned to the places of the main efforts,  this
   was the worst thing I ever saw." 

   Bayerlein summarized the aftermath in the following way:        

  "My front lines looked like the face of the moon, and at least 70%          
    of my troops were out of action - dead, wounded, crazed, or numb."

The airmen of the 8th Army Air Force enlisted for the entire duration of the war that
was started by Adolph Hitler and his war machine.   These airmen were literally in
it till death  ...  of either themselves or their heavily equipped enemy.  During their
tours of duty, there were multiple occasions when 88, 108, and 128 mm canon fire
would barrage them so intensely that the surviving airmen would wonder how they
made through it the high speed metal hailstorms.   They would return to British air
bases, only to be impressed by the amount of battle damage that their B-17 Flying
Fortresses and B-24 Liberators endured in flight.

During WWII, if you were in Germany during daylight hours and heard a thunder-
ous roar of airplane engines approaching you, it was always the Americans in all
their audacity, coming in plain sight, in order to have a better chance at hitting the
Nazi industrial war machine.  This included V1 rocket sites, Luftwaffe air bases,
Tiger Tank factories, warplane assembly lines, truck assembly lines, military rail
yards, chemical plants, fuel depots, buzz bomb sites, gun positions, and even the
Panzer Lehr Division which, within one ninety minute span of time, was no longer
the Fatherland's impenetrable armored division.  When compared to the strategic
8th Army Air Force, and even the tactical 9th, the mighty Panzer Lehr Division
was no stronger than cardboard boxes and coastline sand castles.

In a nutshell, if the 8th Army Air Force didn't knock out the Nazi German war in-
dustry, World War II would have endured much longer than it did, resulting in far
more casualties than it did.   In fact, if the 8th AAF didn't make a dedicated effort
in bombing Nazi rail yards in France, the allied invaders of Normandy would have
been met with far more resistance than they did.

As a general rule, the easiest missions where those made to submarine bull pens
and V1 Rocket sites.   Close encounters with death often occurred during those
missions that targeted the various Nazi marshaling yards, tank factories, and war-
plane assembly plants.  A marshaling yard, incidentally, was a railway staging area
that sent Nazi troops, supplies, and ordnance rolling.   The 8th Army Air Force
stopped the rolling, but only at a heavy price, being that the Nazi marshaling yards
were so heavily defended.

The 8th Army Air Force carried on its bombers men as iconic as Jimmy Stewart,
Walter Cronkite, Clark Gable, and the famous 60 Minutes Tour de Farce master,
Andy Rooney.  In performing its missions during daylight hours, it was a corps
of sitting ducks in the sky.

The Presence of the 8th Army Air Force
in the European Theater of Operation

Of the 115,332 casualties sustained by the U.S. Army Air Force during WWII, 41%
of them were Eighth Army Air Force casualties.  Of the 47,483 casualties sustained
by the Eighth Army Air Force in WWII, over 26,000 were fatalities.   This exceed-
ed the 19,733 combat deaths and 24,511 total deaths that the U.S. Marine Corps
sustained during the same war.

"We didn't get any flak until we got to the I.P.   Over the target, it 
 was a barrage. (Very intense.)   Twenty-six ships in all went down."

Over 28,000 airmen of the Eighth Army Air Force became prisoners of war in Eur-
ope.   Other airmen who bailed out over Nazi airspace were rescued by French,
Belgian, or Dutch underground networks.   Other airmen, upon parachuting to the
earth, were lynched by German civilians.

"Over this target, I saw one ship go down in a ball of fire.   At the 
   coast, I saw another one go into a tight spin.   It blew up when it
   hit the ground.   I only saw five chutes come out of this one."

As the war in Europe progressed, the ratio of flak-induced casualties to the fighter-
induced ones increased significantly.   During the months June, July, and August,
in 1944, 86.2% of the Eighth Army Air Force's casualties were due to flak.

"The flak over the target was terrific;  very heavy and very accurate. 
  We lost one plane in our group.   It was burning as it headed toward 
  the earth.   We saw three chutes come out of it."

The First and Third Air Divisions of the 8th Army Air Force operated B-17 Flying
Fortresses. The Second Air Division operated the B-24 Liberators.  The number of
B-24 Liberators lost in combat by the Second Air Division was 1,458.

"As we peeled away from the target, I saw a B-24 blow up in mid-air.   
  No chutes came out of it."

The phrase that American airmen used to describe the act of bailing out of a fall-
ing war plane was "Hit the silk(s)."   American parachutes were made of silk, and
a number of wedding gowns were made from American parachutes.

"We were ready to bail out when the pilot finally stabilized things."

A bombing run that encountered very little enemy resistance was called "a milk
run."   However, milk runs were not worthless. Some of them inflicted pivotal
damage upon the Nazi War Machine.

         "Our target for today was a buzz bomb site in the Pas-de-Calais
            area.   This mission, I believe, has been the easiest one so far.
            The bombing was visual, and the target was well smashed." ...

None the less, one crew's
milk run was another crew's 

"While going in, a flak gun 
at the Siegfried Line shot 
down one of our planes."

Shortly after the Liberation of Paris, the Second Air Division delivered tons of
food to Orleans, France.   These flights were called "grocery runs."   They were
were also called mercy missions.

"We saw many, many tanks and vehicles along the roads and in the fields, 
  all wrecked and burnt.   I must have seen at least a million bomb craters 
  and foxholes.  I saw a lot of wrecked planes.  Dead cows and horses were 
  laying in the fields.    There was evidence of a battle everywhere along 
  our route."

Bomber crewmen called fighter pilots "little buddies."

"As we were falling back (out of formation), fighter escorts stayed 
  with us despite the heavy flak and German interceptors."

Marshaling yards, (repeatedly mentioned throughout the missions log), were railway
staging centers through which Nazi ordnance, supplies, and troops were transported.
Some of them were heavily guarded by Nazi flak guns.

Marshaling yards were so strategically important that the allied strategy, leading up
to D-day, was that of bombing German marshaling yards.   This was done, in order
to prevent the Nazis from being able to quickly send reinforcements to Normandy

"The railroad cars at the marshaling yards were a mass of wreckage."

The I.P., also mentioned throughout the missions log, was the Initial Point.  It was
the spot in the sky where a mission's bombing phase began.   This was the coordi-
nate where each remaining bomber crew was to lock in on the target and fly in a
straight line, making neither turns nor evasive maneuvers until its bomb load was
released.   This phase was one in which American bomber crews were extremely
vulnerable to anti-aircraft fire.

"We flew to the I.P. and got some more flak.   As we were making our
   bombing run, from the I.P. to the target, we got even more flak.   We 
   released our bombs on the target and they were still shooting at us."

Individual crews would have an engine shot out over the target more than one.

"We lost altitude so fast that we made for the nearest level strip."

The Initial Point was usually five minutes from the target.

"The flak was really heavy all the way from the IP to the target, 
and even past the target.   I was sweating it out, because a four
gun enemy battery was barely missing our left wing."

The Ruhr Valley was called Flak Valley by American airmen, on account of the
number of flak guns in the region.

"Long before we dropped the bombs, (though after the I.P.), flak 
  was hitting all around us.  We dropped the bombs and made a left-
  hand turn.   The flak was so close that I could see the red flashes 
  as it burst."

Mentioned in a few of the mission log entries from where came the quotes appear-
ing on this page are readings such as "10/10 cloud cover." In as much, 10/10 stood
for 100% cloud cover, while 9/10 stood for 90% cloud cover, so on and so forth.

"We had about 6/10 cloud cover all the way."

The United States Army Air Force flew its missions during daylight hours in the Eur-
opean Theater of Operation, while the British RAF flew its missions at night.   An ex-
ception for American air units was the 801st/492nd Bomb Group. The airmen who
served in that bomb group were known as the Carpetbaggers.

The Carpetbaggers included American airmen who flew behind enemy lines at night,
delivering supplies to resistance forces, evacuating downed allied airmen, scattering
leaflets throughout the night sky, and transporting allied spies.   The Carpetbaggers
even delivered skis and sleighs to Norwegian resistance forces.

The Carpetbaggers had a clandestine airfield in Ain, France.

The C-1 auto-pilot would be activated as soon as a crew entered into the bombing
phase of a mission.   It was during the actual bombing phase when the bombardier
would assume complete command of the bomber.  Bombardiers were the ones hit
the most often by flak, along with navigators.  In fact, before the bombing phase of
a mission, the bombardier would be in charge of the nose gun.

The instrument used by bombardiers by 1944,  whenever radio-guided Pathfinder
Force Technology (P.F.F.) was not present, was the Norden Bombsight.   The
Norden Bombsight was an analog computer comprised of gyros, gears, mirrors,
bubble levels, and a small telescope.

Having replaced the Sperry S-1 Bombsight in 1943, it was preferable to P.F.F.
technology.   It was even preferable to the rarely used Azon radioguided bombs.
In fact, updated versions of the Norden Bombsight were used in Korea and Vi-

     "Our target for today was a German airfield at Laon, France.
              The bombing was visual and results looked good."

In the event that a bomber began to fall out of the sky, it was the bombardier's duty
to destroy the Norden Bombsite before he bailed out, if of course, the bomber were
equipped with one.

The bombsight's necessity consisted in the fact that a degree of bombing accuracy
was needed by the 8th Army Air Force in Europe, due to the nature of the targets
assigned to it.
                                 "Our target was a concentration
                                    of enemy stronghold positions
                                  about three miles west of St. Lo." ...

                                  ... "enemy troops were about
                                       1,500 yds from our troops." ...

                       ... "The Field Artillery signaled us with flares.
                          There were also white markers on the ground
                         to direct us in the air.   The targets were all hit."

The previous quotes came from an airman's account of the July 25, 1944 bombing
of the Panzer Lehr Division near St. Lo, France.   Known as Operation Cobra, the
mission's outcome marked the breakout of allied ground forces from their coastal
confinements.   In fact, the successful outcome of Operation Cobra marked the be-
ginning of Germany's retreat from France.  Ironically, after the successful air raid,
allied ground force moved south and than west, before moving east, to Germany.

The day when the Panzer Lehr Division was decimated by the Eighth and Ninth
Army Air Forces was the day when Nazi troops learned that Germany's heavy
armored divisions were as vulnerable to America's bombers and attack aircraft
as cardboard boxes are vulnerable to sledge hammers.

This reality was evident on D-day, when medium sized B-26 Marauders of the 9th
Army Air Force destroyed a number of German tanks during tactical support mis-

General Omar Bradley was quoted as having said that Operation Cobra "struck a 
more deadly blow than any of us dared imagine."  A remarkable aspect of the
St. Lo Air Raid was that 20 lb fragmentation bombs, 100 lb demolition bombs, and
260 lb fragmentation bombs were all that were taken into battle by the 8th Army Air
Force, in order to decimate a Nazi armored division.

Neither the 2,000 lb demolition bomb, nor the 1,000 lb demolition bomb, nor even
the 500 lb incendiary bomb made an appearance at St. Lo, on July 25.  In fact, the
napalm incendiary bomb which made its debut eight days prior, during a P-38 raid
over France, was not used at St. Lo, either.

On July 25, a portion of the 8th Army Air Force bomber crews carried 20 lb frag-
mentation bombs @ 240 bombs per bomber, while other ones were equipped with
100 lb demolition bombs @ 38 bombs per bomber, while yet other crews went to
St. Lo with a load of 260 lb fragmentation bombs @ 20 bombs per bomber.

During Operation Cobra, the Panzer Lehr Division was more than fragged.  It had
troops who were literally vaporized.  The impact of the July 25th raid was recount-
ed by attending Nazi officer, Lieutenant-General Fritz Bayerlein.  The following was
posted at the introduction of this expose.  It's posted here again, for the reader's con-
venience.  Within his account is the phrase, "heavy bombs."   This refers to the bomb
loads that were dropped from each heavy bomber, as opposed to the weight of the
individual bombs themselves:

"The entrenched infantry was either smashed by the heavy bombs while 
  in their foxholes and dugouts or else they were killed and buried by the 
  blast.   Infantry and artillery positions were blown up.  The bombed-out
  area was entirely transformed into a field covered with craters, where no 
  human was left alive.   Tanks and guns were destroyed and overturned, 
  unable to be recovered, because all roads and passages were blocked."

General Bayerlein also wrote:

"The shock effect was nearly as strong the physical effect" ... "Some of the 
  men got crazy and were unable to carry out anything.   I was personally in 
  the center of the bombardment and could experience the tremendous effect.   
  For me, one who, during this war, was at every theater of operation, and 
  who had been assigned to the places of the main efforts,  this was the worst 
  thing I ever saw."

Bayerlein summarized the aftermath in the following way:

"My front lines looked like the face of the moon, and at least 70% 
  of my troops were out of action - dead, wounded, crazed, or numb."

The July 25th bombing raid proved erroneous the documentary makers' claim that
the allied invasion force of June 1944 would have been pushed back into the Eng-
lish Channel if all available Panzer divisions had immediately responded to Nor-
mandy Beach.   The truth is that Nazi armored units would have been decimated
near the Normandy shoreline the same way in which the Panzer Lehr Division
was decimated near the town of St. Lo.  

If the Panzer tanks started rolling on that day, the 8th Army Air Force would have
been flying a double shift, along with the tactical Ninth AAF which probably would
have responded to the scene much quicker than the 8th AAF.  Now, the morning
of June 6th was accompanied by low cloud cover and the inability to perform sight
bombing.   However, the skies began to clear in the afternoon.   In addition, the re-
peated bombing of Nazi marshaling yards prior to D-day prevented the rapid de-
ployment of Nazi infantry divisions to the west coast of France.  The Nazis often
traveled by rail.  The 8th Army Air Force kept demolishing its travel routes.

That which the 8th Army Air Force did not have the technology to decimate were
the concrete-reinforced gun positions known as pillboxes and the accompanying
bunkers that were lined along the French coastline.

The number of American troops killed by friendly fire during the St. Lo Raid was
111.   The number of American troops injured by friendly fire during the same raid
was 490.   Forty-two B-26 Marauders of the 9th Army Air Force "short bombed."
This resulted in the 30th Infantry Division sustaining 64 soldiers being killed in ac-
tion, 60 ending up missing in action (presumed to be buried under the blasts), and
374 gettingwounded.   If that hadn't happened, friendly fire casualties would have
been 47 killed and 126 wounded, in unintentional collateral damage.

During the St. Lo Air Raid, Nazi German anti-craft batteries fired upon oncoming
American bomb groups with accuracy.  

                        "The flak was rather intense and accurate.
                         Our right wing ship went down in flames."

Concerning the bombing of Dresden, it was the 8th Army Air Force's First Air Di-
vision who participated in that bombing, and even at that, the participating Ameri-
can bomb groups only bombed the Dresden rail system.   The RAF was the entity
who deliberately bombed civilian targets as a matter of policy, and the Americans
and British conducted their own operations independent of each other.  The 1st Air
Division's bombing of the Dresden rail system had the strategic effect of impeding
the Nazis from sending reinforcements to the Eastern Front.

Furthermore, the Feuersturm of Hamburg (known as Operation Gomorrah and the
Hiroshima of Germany) took place during the summer of 1943.   It was RAF night
raids which placed that time span in infamy, as it was a deliberate act of revenge for
the bombing of London.

In 1944, Strategic Bombing, as opposed to Area Bombing, was the operative mode
of the Eighth Army Air Force so much so that, during the same year, its name was
changed to the U.S. Strategic Air Forces (USSAF).  The carpet bombing of civilian
areas was NOT the assigned objective of the 8th Army Air Force.  Rather, the de-
struction of the Nazi War Machine was.  This included military hardware in produc-
tion and in the field, as well as transportation routes, storage areas, airfields, and
enemy troop strong points such as the Nazi gun positions in Metz, France.

"Our target for today was a Heinkel aircraft plant in Rostock, Germany.  
  The plant was one of the largest in Germany, but now it is no more.  Our 
  target was previously hit, but more damage needed to be done to it.   We 
  smashed the target flat this time.   The bombing was visual, and I could 
  see the bombs hit, blowing the place sky high. "

The official phrase, Precision Bombing, was employed in Europe by United States
bomber command, in order to define the targets as being precisely designated and
precisely limited to those of military significance.   The phrase was intended to con-
trast Area Bombing, the practice employed by RAF bomber command by which en-
tire civilian areas were targeted and indiscriminately bombed.

American squadrons were also given secondary and tertiary targets before each
bombing mission, along with primary target and targets of opportunity. 

"... we went to our secondary target, which was a chemical and high ex-
  plosives plant at Clausthal-Zellerfeld. We dropped our bombs and then 
  circled the target, to see what we did.   By the looks of the place, it isn't 
  any good to the Germans anymore.  The target was blazing, as smoke was 
  coming up to about 5,000 to 6,000 feet."

The documentary makers' claim that a thousand bombers would be sent to the same
one bombing target per mission is a falsehood.  The truth is that 300 to 1,500 bomb-
ers would be sent out to bomb four, eight, twelve, eighteen or so targets during the
same one outing.   Designated targets would be in the same general geographic re-
gion, and the various bomb groups would eventually separate into a number of dif-
ferent formations en route to the multiple targets.

There were occasions where only 4 to 13 bombers would attack an individual target.
There were even instances when a solitary bomber attacked a solitary target of op-
portunity.   However, the general trend was that the typical Nazi target was attacked
by 1 to 300 bombers, with 25 to 175 being the more frequently observed numerical
range, if not the exact statistical median.   It was even more common for 55 to 135
American bombers to attack a primary target.

                    "There were about 50 bombers at our target."

An exception was the day when the Leuna synthetic oil refinery at Merseberg was
attacked by 383 bombers during one raid and then 210 bombers later in the same
day.   There were other exceptions.  Only on rare occasion would a thousand or
more bombers be sent to one target.  The St. Lo Raid was one example, and even
at that, it was a joint effort between the Tactical 9th Army Air Force and the stra-
tegic 8th Army Air Force.

The October 1944 attack on Hamm, Germany, was the exception to the precision
bombing rule, even though the first two Autumn raids on Hamm targeted its mar-
shaling yards.  The mission which designated all of Hamm as the primary target
coincided with the recently failed Operation Market Garden which was once por-
trayed on Screen in, A Bridge Too Far, and in the TV serial, A Band  of Brothers.

   - The first autumn mission to Hamm occurred the day after the British
     1st Airborne Division in Holland was ordered to withdraw across the
     Rhine. In fact, takeoff time was a few hours after Operation Market
     Garden was officially declared halted. This was Tuesday, September
     26, 1944. 
                    "Our target for today was one of Germany's larg-
                      est rail centers that support troops in Holland."

  - There was a vested interest in shielding allied troops in Holland from
     a Nazi counteroffensive which would have had its supply line anchored
     at the Hamm marshaling yards. There was also a vested interest in safe-
    guarding Dutch Resistance personnel from Nazi retaliation.   There was
    the additional need to prevent the Germans from turning the western bor-
    der of Holland into a scaled ver ion of the Atlantic Wall (or a replica of
    the Siegfried Line).   In light of this, the allies were in need of establish-
    ing strongholds in the Holland that they invaded ten days prior. 

             "We were to hit the rail depot at the rail center of 
               Hamm, Germany.   The whole 8th Army Air Corps 
               was bombing in this area today."

 - The second autumn mission to Hamm occurred four days after the first
    mission, on September 30th.   Then, on the following Monday, Hamm's
    ability to export the Nazi War Machine to Holland was significantly dis-

 - The bombing mission was successful enough to enable the 1st Canadian
   Army to maintain a position near Groesbeek, Holland.   This resulted in
   the Operation Veritable that began in February 1945.

          "This is the largest rail center in Germany, and I don't 
            think that we will have to go back there again.  I could 
            see the bombs hit right into the target."

 - Crews of the 578th Bomb Group had already been briefed for a mission
    to Stuttgart on the morning of the Second of October. They then found
    themselves in a briefing room once again, being briefed on the Hamm mis-
    sion shortly before takeoff time. Thus, there was a sense of urgency in the
    third Hamm mission, as opposed to a premeditated plan.

         "After we peeled away from the target, I saw three more
           groups drop their bombs.   They smashed Hamm flat."

 - The Hamm marshaling yards were attacked before the three autumn raids,
    during the end of summer, on the 19th of September.  This occurred while
    Operation Market Garden was still in progress.  Hamm's marshaling yards
    would then be attacked again, on November 26, 1944.   But, the mission
    which made all of Hamm the primary target was October 2, 1944.

As was previously mentioned, the RAF engaged in Area Bombing as a matter of
policy.   British high command asserted that destroying German civilian neighbor-
hoods would destroy the German workforce and the Nazis' ability to manufacture
its weaponry.  In fact, Winston Churchill ordered the RAF to perform "terror raids"
upon civilian populations.

British high command was proven wrong.   History showed that Area Bombing did
not destroy the Nazi war industry.   Nor did it demoralize Germany to the point of
surrendering.   If anything, the bombing of civilian venues inspires an enemy to fight
even more vehemently against you with the military hardware that was untouched
while you were bombing his civilian neighborhoods.

The Nazi's defeat at Leningrad was attributed to the fact that civilian venues through-
out that city were intentionally bombed by the Luftwaffe, giving Russian snipers free
reign throughout a fortress of rubble.

The systematic bombing of civilian areas is strategically detrimental, as well as a
crime against humanity.   The bombing of merely one truck assembly plant did more
to defeat the Nazis than did the killing of a multitude of German civilians.

"Our target was a truck plant in Cologne, Germany.   This was a very im-
  portant mission, because the Germans were using the trucks to carry sup-
  plies to the front lines at Aachen and other places."

On occasion, an American bomber squadron would make the error of missing its
assigned target and then hitting a Swiss town or a German municipality.

There were varying degrees of collateral damage for almost any bombing raid that
did not target a submarine bullpen, a Nazi airfield, a remote railway viaduct, a buzz
bomb site, or a recessed gun position.   The amount of collateral damage depend-
ed on a few variables, including the target's proximity to civilian areas, the percen-
tage of cloud cover, the intensity of flak being fired near the target, the flammable
nature of the target, the year in which the air raid took place, and the type of radio
guidance system or bombsight used in the bombing.

Even at that, there were times when the Eighth Army Air Force declined to release
its bombs over Nazi-held territory, due to the presence of too much cloud cover
and the accompanying inability to locate a specific target.

Also keep in mind that a falling American airship (especially one that had not yet
released its bomb load), as well as a plummeting fighter plane, had the potential to
cause collateral damage, also.

In the European Theater of Operation, there were American bomber crews who be-
came the victims of friendly fire while in the air.

"We lost two ships in our group due
to our own bombs dropping on them."

Fatal bomber accidents were not limited to training venues.   There was the tragedy
of American bombers collidsinf into each other upon their return to Britain, as well
as cases of bombers being lost in the English Channel. 

"As we got back to our base, two of the planes in our group  crashed into 
  each other and blew up.   It was an unbelievable sight.  I saw the planes 
  explode right off our left wing and then hit the ground.   No one got out 
  alive.   The weather was plenty rough when coming in.   We lost another 
  plane in the channel."

The Nazis acquired radar technology and used it in its anti-aircraft tactics.  The ra-
dar countermeasure employed by the Americans was that of dispersing bundles of
aluminized paper strips throughout the sky.   Known as chaff, the strips were dis-
persed through trap doors by each crew's waist gunners.

The strips served the function of decoys, causing multiple returns to appear on an
enemy's radar screens.  Despite this countermeasure, American bombers were still
being shot down over Nazi airspace, while a significant number of them were re-
turning to England noticeably shot-up.

                 "About 40 bombers were lost.   I now know how a duck
                 feels during hunting season.  One ship in our group was
                 lost.   Plenty of them were pretty well shot up."

Even after the allied invasion of France and the establishment of allied air superior-
ity, American airmen continued to be in peril throughout parts of the European skies.
As an initial example,  three hundred and seventy-three B-24 liberators were sent to
bomb Nazi German oil refineries and aircraft assembly plants thirty-two days after
D-day.   One hundred and twenty-seven of the bombers returned to England with
battle damage, while thirty-seven of them never returned.  Six U.S. fighter planes
were also lost in combat. 
                                          "The flak was heavy and accurate.
                                               Also, plenty of enemy fighters;
                                          (JU-88, Me-109, Me-410, FW-190.)"

As another example, the July 12, 1944 mission to Munich resulted in battle damage
being inflicted upon 301 heavy bombers.  Twenty-six of the bombers were shot
down over the target.  The target was the Munich marshaling yards.

                             "The mission was long and tiresome."

The tragic Kassel Mission occurred 16 weeks after D-day, on September 27, 1944.
Twenty-five of the thirty-five participating airships of the 445th Bomb Group were
shot down in a 15 minute time span.  The intended target was a Tiger Tank factory. 

                           "This bomber group's losses were heavy
                                in spite of heavy fighter support."

As a final example, on the last day of November, in 1944, 29 heavy bombers were
shot down, while 612 other ones sustained battle damage while in Nazi airspace, at-
tacking four synthetic oil refineries, two marshaling yards, and several targets of op-

During their grocery runs to Orleans, American bombers crews did not travel to 
French airports with full crews.

"Only the pilot, co-pilot, navigator, engineer, and radio operator were on 
  board.   I don't know what we would have done if we had been attacked 
  by fighters.   We were so low that we could see the French people wave 
  at us.   Also a few GIs."

Even though Switzerland was a neutral nation throughout World War II, the Swiss
captured and interned American aviators who bailed out over Switzerland.   Even
though the America prisoners of war were interned at Swiss ski resorts they were
subject to marginal diets of 1,500 calories daily and the gnaw of very poorly heat-
ed quarters.   None the less, Switzerland proved to be a lifesaver for over a 1,700
American aviators.

The United States government received hotel bills from the Swiss, on account
of American airmen interned at the Swiss ski lodges.  In addition, over 100,000
soldiers of various nations and branches of service made their ways to Switzer-
land, along with 200,000+ civilian refugees.

"Gerry really had our number.   I didn't see any ships go down, but one 
  crew in our barracks was shot up so badly that it had to go to Switzer-


If a bomber crew failed to drop its bomb load on a Nazi target during a mission, yet
flew through airspace under attack by enemy flak guns or fighter planes, it would still
receive credit for having performed a combat mission.

The United States Air Force did not become an independent branch of the American
military until 1947.   Until then, it operated under United States Army command.   It
originally carried the title, Aeronautical Division of the U.S. Signal Corps, followed
chronologically by Aviation Section  (of the Signal Corps), the Division of Military
Aeronautics, and the U.S. Army Air Service.   Then, in 1926, congress changed its
name to the United States Army Air Corps.

In 1941, the United States Army Air Force was established, and the Office of the
Chief of the Army Air Corps was disbanded.   However, throughout World War II,
the phrase Army Air Corps was often used when speaking of the newly formed Ar-
my Air Force.   This was done even by the press and government officials, as well
as by members of the Army Air Force. 

The Eighth Army Air Force was founded in 1942, and was originally called VIII
Bomber Command.   Its name was then changed to the U.S. Strategic Air Forces,
during February of 1944.   However, consecutive years of familiarity with the phrase,
Army Air Corps, even at the recruiting office, is the reason why the USSAF was of-
ten referred to as the 8th Army Air Corps, even by its own airmen.

"Our group did not lose any planes, but the 8th Army Air Corps lost 51 
  heavy bombers. "

The airmen saw things as scenic as the White Cliffs of Dover and "the peaks of the
Alps protruding through the clouds."   This is contrasted by the sight of airships go-
ing down in balls of fire, as well as the devastation that was seen in France, during
the grocery runs which occurred after the Liberation of Paris.  The Eighth Army Air
Force, in traveling behind enemy lines, was pivotal in the Liberation of France, the
Netherlands, and Belgium.

"When we left the target, we could see the peaks of the Alps protruding
 through the clouds.   They looked very pretty, but I did not want to hang
 around and look at them. "