January 24, 2017

12.1% in 2011: The United States' lowest AVERAGE effective corporate tax rate in four decades.

Intro:  The following article is only confusing, because Americans believed in
good faith the lies told to them about corporate taxes ... throughout the 2012 Re-
publican Party primary debates.  The Republican presidential candidates paint-
ed the picture of a financial horror story to the point of crying out that the sky is
falling.  Well, in the Year 2011, the AVERAGE effective tax rate of American
corporations was a bargain basement 12.1%.

Concerning Republican propaganda and the infamous Romney 47% video, why
do people who have more than enough money complain about having to miss a
child's soccer game, in order to amass more money that isn't needed?  In addi-
tion, what extra time is acquired in making money of off interest-bearing notes?
The only answer to the first question is that they are people not grateful for what
they have, but who obsessively seek to consummate insatiable greed.  They see
themselves as not having enough money. 

The compulsive gambler and drug addict mind set of present corporate Ameri-
can resulted in an income disparity of 288.  This refers to the reports which re-
vealed that a member of the Economic 1% makes 288 times more income per
year than a median worker with a $57,000 yearly income.

http://money.cnn.com/2012/09/11/news/economy/wealth-net-worth/index.html
______________________________________________________________
 
The chart used to advocate the trickle-down theory of Reaganomics is the Laffer
Curve.  The root of the curve is 14th Century Tunisian philosopher, Ibn Khaldun. 
In fact, the charted curve looks like a roller coaster design.  None the less, the as-
sertion attached to the curve is that lowering business taxes will result in added
investment on the part of business, thereby creating jobs in the process.  The ad-
ditional investment would then result in profits and wages.  In turn, the added
profits and new wages would result in additional tax revenue.

The problem today is that history has repeatedly illustrated that the Laffer Curve
assertion is invalid in the presence of widespread outsourcing and overseas tax
havens.  This is because much of the added money-in-hand is sent overseas, cre-
ating a drain on the nation's money supply.  In as much, corporate dollars have
NOT been trickling down. They were going overseas, thanks to a Newt Gingrich
who advocated a practice which has regarded as a crime against humanity in the
Nuremberg trials.  America's corporate management adopted the "take the money
and run" policy.

Now, the Laffer Curve's main assertion is based on an assumption about human
behavior that was disproved during the Clinton Years.  It assumed that corpor-
ate management was going to take the newly available corporate dollars and in-
vest them in America.  Overseas tax havens and foreign sweatshop profiteering
wasn't in the original equation.  Now, concerning Reagan's trickle-down theory,
know that the circular "flow of income & expenditures" is NOT a matter of mon-
ey trickling-down or drying-up.  It's a matter of injection vs. leakage into and
out of the circular flow that is illustrated at the beginning of any introductory
economics school book. 

              The Lowest Effective Corporate Tax Rate in Decades

The effective corporate tax rate of 2011 was its lowest in 40 years, at 12.1%.
This means that 2012 should have resulted in the highest job creation in dec-
ades.  It didn't do so, despite the fact that the effective U.S. corporate tax rate
is among the lowest on earth.

Now, in 2010 and 2011, corporations were permitted to instantly deduct the
sum total of new equipment, instead of depreciating it through the years.  In
2012, the immediate deduction will be 50%.  Due to this, it is assumed that
the effective tax rate of 2012 will be the usual 25.6%.  The door for added
employment was open in 2011 and 2012.  There was a bit of job creation,
but not the amount that the Laffer Curve theory would predict. 

The link to an outline of the 2010 effective tax rates of 280 corporations is
posted below.  It gives some insight to the present economy.

http://www.midnightdestiny.com/2011/11/280-us-corporations.html

See also: 

http://business.time.com/2012/02/06/the-corporate-tax-rate-is-at-its-lowest-in-decades-is-big-business-paying-its-fair-share/

The New York Times reported six weeks before the start of the Occupy Wall
Street Movement that workers' wages were declining,  while corporate profits
were rising.  Thus, even though the final thesis statements of the movement were
in need of radical amendment, the movement itself was the result of cause and
effect.  Very simply, the movement was the result of college graduates being im-
mersed in college loan debt, while being deprived of the income needed to pay-
off the loans.

The reason for the movement was very simple, yet not universal enough in its
scope of issues to have succeeded .  None the less, the OWS Movement was
a warning call to the upper economic echelons of society.  The call was ignored.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/06/business/workers-wages-chasing-corporate-profits-off-the-charts.html?_r=0

In addition, corporate profits reached record profits in the 3rd quarter of 2011,
to the tune of $1.97 trillion.  In the same quarter, worker output rose 3.2% (as is
measured in annual terms).  Yet, the workers' share of new income fell to 57.1%. 
Before the Year 2000, it was approximately 63.9%.  The bottom line is that work-
ers were not getting paid commensurately.

The summary is that real income amongst workers decreased, while U.S. corpor-
ations reached record profits.  There was no trickle-down parity occurringonly
the presence of greed.  A case in point comes from the U.S. Congressional Bud-
get Office.  It reported that the income of the richest 1% rose 275% from 1979
to 2009.  Recent reports from media sources placed the number at 288%.)  In
contrast, the income of the bottom 20% rose no more than 20% during the same
time span.  Thus, the phenomenon of American income disparity is quantitative.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/01/31/wages-2011-record-corporate-profits_n_1244297.html

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/12/01/labor-forces-share-of-income_n_1124189.html

Even though there's an element of validity in the Laffer Curve, there is NO basis
in reality for the "trickle-down" mechanism, being that money travels sideways
in a circular flow (and NOT vertically in any type of economic caste system king
of the hill game).  Economics students learn this during the introductory week of
classes.

An economist has the task of watching for impediments to the circular flow, as
well as watching for leaks draining money away from the flow.  Equilibrium is
the economist's goal.  In as much, a continuous Trade Balance Deficit, as the one
that the American economy has been experiencing for consecutive decades, is a
huge leak of the circular flow.  It's like a hole in a ship's haul.  This means that
right wing operatives have the moral obligation to cease blaming unemployment
on America's unemployed.  FAIR trade and FAIR exchange is what is essential
in economics.  The "free trade" label used by Republican politicians refers to
none other than trade that is free of regulation.  It refers to trade that is free of
accountability.

"Free trade" simply means being free of  a watchdog that would otherwise pre-
vent you from profiting from the gross injustices seen since the days of Newt
Gingrich.  Therefore, the "Free Trade" logo is as bogus as is the "right to
work state" label.

As a reminder, a right to work state is nothing more the typical union-busting
low-wage state.  A right to work state is a permission slip to keep the worker
far less protected than the norms of civilization require.  Such states result in a
large population of the working poor.  This includes large numbers of the 47%
who were maliciously and fallaciously treated with contempt by Mitt Romney
and right wing activists.  The irony of the "free trade" label is that it thrived
on slave labor.  Money made this way was money made by cheating.
______________________________________________________________

January 22, 2017

Senate Filibuster Stats

The Senate's minority party fiddling away while the proverbial Rome burns

Filibuster is a Dutch word which means 'pirate.'  It refers to a minority senator hog-
ging the floor and speaking for an inordinately long time, in order to prevent a vote
being cast which will  result in the majority party passing the law presented for vot-
ing.  Segregationist Strom Thurmond holds the record for time on the floor, prevent-
ing a vote from being cast.

A filibuster consists in abusing the no-time-limit rule of a senator speaking on the
floor.  It is ended by means of motioning for cloture and then obtaining at least a
3/5 vote of present senators. Well, the 110th Congress saw its senator file for over
a hundred motions for cloture, for the first time in history ... 139.  The 110th Con-
gress existed in 2007/2008.  The 109th Congress only filed 68 motions, in compar-
ison.

During Barack Obama's first term, there were 247 motions for cloture filed in the
Senate, meaning that there were 247 filibusters.  During George Walker Bush's
first term, there were 133.   During Bill Clinton's first term, 162 were filed.  Dur-
ing George Bush Seniors first and only term, there were 98.  During Ronald Rea-
gan's first term, there were 72.  During Jimmy Carter's only term, there were 53.
In contrast, during Ike's eight years in office, there were only  2.  During FDR's
12 and 1/3 years in office, there were 5.

The latest year when there was no filibuster at all in the senate was 1959.  In fact,
July 24, 1954 and March 7, 1960, there were no motions for cloture at all, mean-
ing that there were no cited filibusters.  If there were any during that time, they
were ignored by the official records.

http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/reference/cloture_motions/clotureCounts.htm

Note:  There are no U.S. House of Representative filibusters, because there is a
time limit for a representative to speak on the floor.

January 21, 2017

Exceptional Hypocrites

The individual in the buggy believed herself to be exceptional
and the rest of us unclean heathens.   Yet,  she did not object
to using the heathen road and slowing traffic to a virtual halt.


American Exceptionalsm is
Chauvinism; a bumper sticker
phrase used in 2012 that pro-
longed the polarization of the
Bush/Cheney years.

Several advancements came
from foreign-born inventors,
such as Farnsworth, Fermi,
Graham Bell, Volta, Faraday,
Marconi, and Tesla.
America is a land of immigrants.  It's the world in miniature.  Thus, the concept of
isolating America high on a 'shining hill' is a contradiction to what this nation signi-
fies. 

The idea of American Exceptionialism amounts to a trickle-down caste system.  It
accentuates the Republican Party's trademark animosity toward immigration per se.
In fact, if the Republican Party of today had its way in the 1930s, Albert Einstein
would have been denied a visa and Oppenheimer would have eventually vanished
in a Nazi concentration camp.

If the Republican Party had any wisdom, it would have showcased America as the
place where you get the best of all worlds, all cultures, and all ethnic backgrounds.
But no.  The Republican Party had to morph into the Southern Democratic Party.
It had to incorporate into its thought patterns the bigotry that prevailed during the
George Wallace years, the Strom Thurmond years, the cross burning years, the
lynch mob years, the chattel slavery years, etc.

The phrase insinuates White Anglo Saxon Supremacy.  Well, there are Asian Amer-
icans,  African Americans,  Latins Americans, Arabian Americans, Scandinavian
American , Western European Americans,  Eastern European Americans, Native
Americans,  and a few arctic polar bears in American zoos :-).  In as much, the es-
sence of America is EqualityNOT conceited, elitist, superior-race, trickle down
Exceptionalism.

Furthermore, if not for a few French military men, such as Rochambeau & Gilbert
(the legendary Marquis of Lafayette), there would be no United States, due to the
incredible incompetency of the American generals at the time ... including George
"Brooklyn Heights" Washington who was outflanked so badly by the British that
no reasonable person could take him seriously.  In as much, George Patton was
America's military genius not George Washington and definitely not the George
Clinton whose job it was to evade the British until the French navy came to the
rescue at Yorktown.

The other reality check is that not all American regions are alike.  Have you ev-
er heard of the word, Redneck?  That's exceptional?   No one thinks so.  In fact,
have you ever heard of the word, 'ghetto?'  Well, that's an indictment on Ameri-
can government and big business.  After all, there's nothing exceptional about
any business that makes its windfall profits on the sweat of exploited factory
workers overseas and in Mexico.  In like fashion, there's nothing exceptional
about any government who allows such criminal profiteering, in violation of
the Nuremberg case authority's Count #6 ... namely slave labor.


Why does America seem indifferent to the fact that endocrine disruptor chemicals
are a trademark of the water supplies here?  Why does it ignore the obscenely high
U.S. Trade Balance Deficit?   In fact, why is there no plan to undo exorbitant col-
lege loan debts that impair America's ability to achieve the American Dream on a
mass scale?  ... high gasoline prices that yield high oil company profits? ... the fact
that the 2012 minimum wage carried 30% less purchasing power than did the 1968
minimum wage? ... the size of the DOD, CIA, & HLS budget? ...  the level of gang
membership and related criminal activity?   ...  income disparity?  ...  an unlimited
& disparate campaign donation system that takes the financially impoverished out
of all public debates?  ... exorbitant hospital expenses?  ... the rise in Autism?  ... the
rise in Asthma?  ... the highest incarceration rate on Planet Earth? ... the lowest SAT
scores in history?  American Exceptionalism is merely a smoke screen.

In re:  The 1968 min wage vs the 2013 min wage, regarding purchasing power:
http://www.nelp.org/page/-/rtmw/NELP-Big-Business-Corporate-Profits-Minimum-Wage.pdf?nocdn=1

In re:  America's historically low SAT scores:
http://blog.heritage.org/2012/09/25/sat-scores-at-historical-low-education-spending-at-historical-high/

The aforementioned things are concurring indications of negligence and manipu-
lation, on the part of today's politicians and their revolving door lobbyists; not
exceptionalism in any capacity whatsoever, except for exceptional evil being
committed at the good ole boy crony level.  America needs to clean-up its act
on a molecular level, a financial level, a societal level, an academic level, an
ethical level, etc.  As an example of corruption in the U.S. Congress, front and
center, see:
                    http://www.bluemarblealbum.com/2013/10/fincher.html


In sequence, the United States is the second fattest nation on this planet, and
it recently was #1 in obesity.  This indicates that America is either the second
most lazy nation on earth or the second most estrogenated nation on earth or
the second most stressed-out nation on earth.  Well, the cancer rate of Ameri-
ca, in combination with its obesity rate, would indicate that its a matter of
Americans being inundated with endocrine disruptor chemicals which hap-
pen to fuel cancer and increase weight-gain.

After all, "the pill" is never filtered out of the water supply, due to technological
limitations.  In like fashion, chemically laden fragrance products are estrogenated,
and America is presently obsessed with these depositories of estrogenated chemi-
cals, at a 24 hour a day, seven day a week rate, be their plug-ins, clip-ons, sprays,
etc.

Next comes the FBI's 2011 Gang Threat Assessment statistics for America, and
that statistical fact that SAT test scores in America are at a historical low.  Add
to this the fact that the present American youth is a circus of tattooed freaks.

http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/2011-national-gang-threat-assessment

More than one person spoke about the new phenomenon of gluttonous fragrance
products reeking out of cars, brought to us by the generation that huffed Scotch
Guard and drank cough syrup excessively, for the cheap high it brings:

One young and healthy-looking deli clerk said that she choked a few times when
a fragrance-gaudy car stopped near her.  Another young and healthy-looking lady
interested in soccer confirmed that today's parking lots are riddled with gluttonous
smelling cars, and did so with her eyes wide open.  Her manager did the same.

A sporting goods sales woman spoke of how those cars triggered her asthma, even
to the point of mentioning that she was able to detect the Febreze clip-on at a nota-
ble distance, with her husband being a witness to her respiratory radar.  A health
food store cashier spoke of how the cars of fragrance gluttons gave her splitting
headaches.  This makes America the most inconsiderate and obnoxious nation on
earth, as obnoxious as anger-provoking radio talk show hosts.  Rush Limbaugh
set a very hateful example.  Incidentally, "Excellence in Broadcasting" was a
Pittsburgh radio station's motto plagiarized by the very uncreative Limbaugh.
Yes, Limbaugh was a Pittsburgh DJ in the early 70s, shortly before FM rock
stations emerged.  At the time, he was with an AM station called KQV.

At present, America needs a thorough house-cleaning, and not further name-calling
sessions, via radio talk shows which cry 'wolf' between commercials.  Flag waving
only attempts to hide the evils which need to be undone in America ASAP.  There
are people who have been trying.  But, the obstructionist Congress (Congress #112)
kept sabotaging all efforts, including efforts to rescue Detroit and resuscitate Cleve-
land.  Meanwhile, the US Trade Balance Deficit keeps rising at the rate of helium.

The truth is that advancements in technology depend on individuals, circumstances,
and opportunities, and not if whether you're American or not.  Plus, if Paul Ryan and
Rand(y) Paul believe so much in American exceptionalism,  then why don't they get
Americans to make the products that sit on American retail store shelves, instead of
letting big business exploit extremely underpaid foreign labor?  Why don't they get
Americans to be the customer service reps that are called at night, so that we can ac-
tually understand the accent of the customer reps whom we call?


Incidentally, Rand(y) Paul was only an eye doctor, and yes, he refused to dismiss
the verbose neo-confederate man from his staff.  This made national mainstream
news.  Now, if Rand(y) Paul should be president or senator, then we should make
all eye doctors senator or president.  In reality, to be a head of state you need to
be a Renaissance man or woman.  If you want to be the mayor of Mayberry, then
being an eye doctor will suffice.

Now, ophthalmology is an important profession, but so too is engineering, nursing,
auto mechanics, heavy equipment operating, computer programming, & plumbing.
So, why not make members of all of those important trades president or senator?
The truth is that you can only have one head of state.  Rand Paul isn't the one for
America or any other reasonably minded nation.  He would bring zero fraternity;
only division in a house already divided.
_________________________________________________________________

January 4, 2017

Federal Tax Statistics of 280 Surveyed Corporations

The statistics of two-hundred and eighty profitable corporations, between 2008 and
 2010, were surveyed by Citizens for Tax Justice and the Institute on Taxation  and 
Economic Policy.  It's a display of objective numerical facts:

http://www.ctj.org/corporatetaxdodgers/CorporateTaxDodgersReport.pdf

 1}  Corporate taxes paid for a quarter of the U.S. federal budget during the 1950's.
       They paid for 20% of the federal budget in the 1960s.  By the late 1990's, cor-
        porations were only paying for 11% of the federal budget.  Today, corporate
        taxes pay for a mere 6% of the federal government's expenses.  This includes
        the $729 billion DOD and Homeland Security tax bill, and this shows that the
        Republican Party repeatedly lied to the American public, in incessantly claim-
        ing that corporations are weighted-down with unbearable and disproportionate
        tax burdens.  Right wing radio talk show hosts would logically be included in
        this lie.

  2} The average 3-year pre-tax profit for the 280 corporations was $4.832 billion.
       The 280 corporations' average effective tax rate for the same period was 18.5%.
       For the Years 2009 and 2010, it was 17.3%.  These are much lower rates than
       the present statutory tax rate of 35%.  In as much, American corporations bene-
       fited from federal tax subsidies as a rule and not as an exception.  Some corpora-
       tions even received rebate checks.  Therefore, the Republican Party's incessant
       claim that corporations in America are being crushed under an oppressive federal
       tax burden is an unconscionable falsehood.

2b} The average effective tax rate of 30 surveyed corporations was MINUS 6.7%,
        meaning that 30 corporations made money, simply by filling out tax forms.
        The average effective tax rate of 67 other corporations was 0%.  In addition,
        111other corporations had an average tax rate of 4.6%.  That's 4 point 6.
        Meanwhile, 98 different corporations had an average rate of 24%, and an
        additional 71 corporations had an average tax rate of 32.3%.

  3} 78 of the corporations surveyed had at least one of the three years where they
        paid zero or less income tax.  25 of the corporation had multiple no-tax years.
        These 78 corporations had a total of 108 no-tax years, out of a potential 234. 
        The average 3-yr effective tax rate of the 78 corporations was MINUS 14%.

 3b} In the Year 2008, the 22 corporations who paid zero income tax received a
        collective total of $3.3 billion in tax rebates.  In 2009, the 49 corporations who
        paid zero income tax originally made a collective pre-tax profit of $78.6 billion
        and then received a collective $10.8 billion in tax rebates.  In the Year 2010,
        the 37 corporations who paid zero income tax ended up receiving $7.8 billion
        in tax rebates.

  4} Pepco Holdings, General Electric, PG&E Corp, Boeing, and El Paso each paid
       zero taxes for three consecutive years.

 4b} Pepco's pre-tax profit was $882 million and its after-tax profit was $508 million.
        This means that it's tax rate was MINUS 57%.  General Electric's pre-tax pro-
        fit, for the three-year period, was $10.46 billion.  It received $4.73 billion in re-
        bates, meaning that its tax rate was MINUS 45.2%.  PG&E Corp's pre-tax
        profit was $4.855 billion.  It then received $1.027 billion in tax rebates.  This
        translates into an effective federal tax rate of MINUS 21.2%.

 4c} Goldman Sachs' pre-tax profit was $4.909 billion.  It received $786 million in
        tax rebates.  Therefore, its three-year tax rate was MINUS 16%.  Dupont's
        pre-tax profit was $949 million and it received $109 million.  This constitutes
        an effective tax rate was MINUS 11.5%.  International Paper's pre-tax profit
        was $217 billion.  It then received $249 billion in tax rebates.  Its effective tax
        rate, therefore, was MINUS 114.7%.  Plus, there is Eli Lilly, whose pre-tax
        profit was $202 million.  It received a tax rebate of $208 million, thereby re-
        sulting in an effective tax rate was MINUS 102.9%.  In contrast, the effective
        tax rate of St. Jude Medical was 37.5%.  In fact, it was 46.2% in 2010.  As
        an added example of tax rate disparity, Coventry Health Care's effective tax
        rate was 40.8%.  Humana's was 39.1%.  However, Marathon Oil's tax rate
        was MINUS 40.6% and Exxon/Mobile's was MINUS 38.3%.

 4d} Marathon Oil's pre-tax profit was $571 million and it received $232 million in
         tax rebates.  Exxon Mobil's pre-tax profit was $2,490 billion for a three year
         period and it received $954 million in tax rebates.  In addition, Honeywell's
         pre-tax profit was $2.966 billion.  It received $510 million, meaning that its
         effective tax rate was MINUS 17.2%.  Yet, Best Buy's was +39.3%.

 4e} The truck manufacturer, Paccar, had an effective tax rate of MINUS 72.6%.
        State Street Corp's effective federal tax rate was MINUS 121.1%.  Com-
        puter Science's effective federal tax rate was MINUS 63.4%.  Omnicare's
        tax rate was MINUS 76.1%.

   5} Wells Fargo received $17.960 billion in total tax subsidies.  AT&T received a
        total of $14.491 billion.  Verizon Communications received $12.332 billion in
        tax breaks.  General Electric received $8.393 billion.  IBM received $8.265
        billion and Exxon/Mobil received $4.096 billion.  Walmart received $2.511
        billion in tax rebates, while Coca-Cola received $2.461 billion.

  6} The effective tax rate for the ten Top Defense Contractors in the Year 2010
        was 10.6%, an effective rate much lower than the statutory 35% corporate
        income tax rate.

 6b} The effective corporate tax rate for the Retail and Wholesale Industry, for the
        past three years, was 30%.  This means that a National Sales Tax would be
        detrimental to the United States.  Quite frankly, it would be disastrous.  This
        illustrates that Coca-Cola Cain doesn't know what he's talking about.  A per-
        son who does know what he's talking about uses formulas to convey his pro-
        posed policy. Such a formula will have at least one variable, signified as "x" or
        "n."  If the candidate uses the letter "n," it's a sign that his staff consists in those
        educated in statistics, able to perform functions known as geometric progres-
        ssions.  9-9-9 has ZERO basis in fact or academic conjecture.  It's an adver-
        tising jingle, as if it were an attempt to sale Cola and Pizza.

 6c} The average tax rate for the Healthcare Industry was 30.4%, for the past three
        years.  This is the industry which needs tax breaks which, in turn, need to trans-
        late into lower medical costs.

 6d} The effective tax rate for Information Technology Services was only 2.5% for
         the past three years, and the effective tax rate of the Telecommunications In-
         dustry was 8.2%.

   7} The Financial Industry received $37.4 billion in tax subsidies.  The Utilities,
        Gas & Electric Industry received $31.2 billion.  The Oil, Gas & Pipeline In-
        dustry received $24.1 billion.  Meanwhile, the Telecommunications Industry
        received $30 billion in tax subsidies.

   8} The Foreign Tax Rate of 134 of the surveyed corporations was actually 6.1%
        HIGHER than those same corporations' effective American tax rate.  In the
        case of 87 of the corporations, their effective American tax rates were 15.7%
        LOWER than their Foreign Tax Rates.   In as much, the statistical average
        proves that the Republican Party lied each time it claimed that corporations
        must operate outside of America, because the tax rate in America is too high.

 8b} Concerning a corporations' U.S. Tax Rate in relation to its Foreign Tax Rate,
        General Electric paid 68.2% LESS in American taxes than in foreign taxes.
        Goldman Sachs paid 23.7% LESS.  Mattel paid 42% LESS.  Chevron paid
        18.7% LESS.  Eli Lilly paid 30.6% LESS.  IBM paid 23.1% LESS.  Truck
        manufacturer, Paccar, had an American tax rate that was 55.3% LESS than
        its foreign tax rate.
          
   9} One reason for such low effective corporate tax rates is the rapid write off of
        capital investments.  This is known as accelerated depreciation and this shows
        that manufacturing can return to America in an amicable fashion.

 10} There is even unfair disparity among corporations in the same industry.  For
        example, FedEx paid 0.9% in tax over the past three years, while UPS paid
        24%.  This shows that the Republican Party once again lied in claiming that
        the American economy is based on "fair competition."

10b} Further examples of inter-industry disparity include the following statistics
         Hewlett-Packard paid 3.7% in taxes, while Texas Instruments paid 33.5%.
         Monsanto paid an average of 22% in income tax throughout the past three
         years, while its competitor, Dupont, had a tax rate of MINUS 3.4%.  Also
         in the computer and office equipment industry is the fact that Corning's tax
         rate was MINUS 0.2%, while Pintey Bowes' rate was 30.4%.  As an add-
         ed instance, Wells Fargo had an effective tax rate of MINUS 1.4%, while
         Charles Schwab had an effective tax rate of 30.2%.  Even corporations get
         cheated by corporate greed.

         The following is Must Reading for anyone dedicated to economic justice.

http://www.ctj.org/corporatetaxdodgers/CorporateTaxDodgersReport.pdf
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